Swamp smartweed

Swamp smartweed

 

Andy's Northern Ontario Wildflowers

Flowering Plants that Grow In Shallow Open Water

 

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Habitat:

Water plants grow in open water, near the edges of lakes or rivers, where the water depth is less than 1-3 metres.  The roots of water plants grow in the organic-rich mud on the lake bottom. Beaver dams, roads, or natural hills may form a barrier behind which water collects.

Some water plants, such as water lilies, are adapted to the open water and developing leaves that float. Other water plants, such as reeds, stand above the water with erect stalks and leaves.  In both cases, the roots are covered by water.

Moose, otters, and muskrat commonly eat the water plants.

Click here for more habitat information:

Plant List:

Flowering Plants that grow in Shallow Open Water

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Broad-leaved arrowhead

Perennial

Flower: White; 2-4 cm wide; 3 white petals and 3 green sepals; bract <1 cm long; 2-8 whorls of 3; July-October.

Leaves: Distinctive arrow-shaped, up to 40 cm long. See following photo.

Stem: Smooth

Height: 0.2-0.8 m.

Habitat: Occurs in shallow standing water.

Interest: The plant is considered by some to be emblematic of war.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 7, 2002.

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Arrowhead

Broad-leaved arrowhead, Burwash, copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Broad-leaved arrowhead leaves.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 7, 2002.

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Broad-leaved arrowhead flower, Burwash, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Broad-leaved arrowhead flower stalk.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 12, 2007

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Stiff arrowhead

Flower: White; 3 white petals and 3 green sepals; in whorls of 3; throughout summer.

Leaves: Mostly lance-shaped or linear.

Height: 10-90 cm

Other: The leaf shape may vary due to changing water depths.

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Stiff arrowhead leaves.

Stiff arrowhead flower.

Flower of stiff arrowhead.

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Floating arrowhead

Flower: White; 2-3 cm wide; a 1 cm-long bract occurs at the base of the flower stalk; in whorls of 3; summer.

Leaves: Floating, arrow-shaped.

Height: Floating, although an emergent form does exist.

Location: Burwash
Date: July 14, 2001.

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Floating arrowhead

Common burreed

Common burreed, Burwash Ontario.

Leaves: Flat; 6-12 mm wide.

Height: Less than 30 cm tall.

Flowers: Male flower heads sit above bur-like female heads (1-2 cm thick); greenish-yellow; beaks greater than 2 mm long; mid- to late-summer.

Habitat: Shallow water (less than 1 m deep) in marshes, rivers, lakes and ponds.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 26, 2000

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Common burreed, Burwash, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Flowering heads of Common burreed. The stigmas are white, while the 6 male heads are yellowish "balls" above the female heads.

Other similar plants:
- Large-fruited burreed (Sparganium eurycarpum) has a split, two-branched stigma and has 10-40 males heads on the main branch.
- Common burreed (Sparganium emersum) has 1 stigma. Has some female flower heads along the stem above the bracts. Has many less male flower heads on the main flower stem compared to the Large-fruited burreed. Has an inflorescence composed of one main branch.
- American burreed (Sparganium americanum) has 1 stigma. The female flowers occur in the axil of the leafy bract and stem. The American burreed has many less male flower heads on the main flower stem compared to the Large-fruited burreed. The American burreed often has branched inflorescence, with 1 or 2 minor branches towards the base of the main flowering branch.

Information Source: Susan J. Meades, Biologist, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 10, 2002.

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Fragrant white water lily, Burwash, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Fragrant white water lily

Flower: White, showy, fragrant, 7-20 cm wide; many petals; 4 green sepals; floats on water surface; open from mid-morning to early afternoon; throughout summer. See following photo.

Leaves: Floating, 7-30 cm wide, rounded with narrow "V-shaped" spilt.

Other: Stalk is rounded with 4 air passages used to pump oxygen to roots.

Language of the Flower: Water lily means "coldness" or "purity of heart". The name of the water lily, Nymphea, is derived from the Greek word nymphe, meaning female deities associated with trees or water and represented as beautiful, young virgins. The virginity of the deities is the likely origin of the flower's association with coldness.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 10, 2002

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Fragrant white water lily flower.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 7, 2002

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Fragrant white water lily, Burwash, copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Yellow pond lily, copyright June 10 2005 Andy Fyon.

Yellow pond lily; also known as Bullhead lily.

Family: Water lily

Aquatic perennial herb.

Flower: Yellow; glossy; 4-6 cm wide, floating on or raised above the water; 6 showy yellow, petal-like sepals and many small yellow petals; yellow antlers; throughout summer.

Leaves: Floating, veined, heart-shaped with rounded lobes; 10-25 cm long; floating when mature.

Habitat: Lakes, ponds, shallow and slow-moving rivers.

Interest: The stalks of Yellow Pond Lily are attached to an  underground stem with roots called a rhizome. Rhizomes are buried in the mud below the water surface. The rhizomes grow quickly to form large colonies.

Ojibwe First Nation Knowledge: Wounds can be cleaned by placing thinly sliced pieces of the root of the Yellow Pond Lily on to the wound. Source: Chief Eli Moonias, Marten Falls First Nation.

Location: Highway 144
Date: June 10, 2005

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Yellow pond lily flower head.

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Yellow pond lily flower.

Yellow pond lily, beaver pond, copyright Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Yellow pond lily growing in a shallow beaver pond.

Location: South of Killarney Highway.
Date: May 26, 2012

Wild calla, copyright 2010 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Water arum or wild calla; native perennial.

Family: Arum

Flower: Tiny; whitish or yellowish colour; lack petals, in dense cluster on a fleshy spike above and hooded by a white oval bract; late May - early July.

Leaves: Basal leaves are heart-shaped, 5-10 cm long.

Fruit: Red, fleshy berries in dense heads. The fruit contains calcium oxalate crystals that are very poisonous.

Height: 10-30 cm.

Habitat: Wild calla grows near the water's edge of quiet ponds and lake margins.

Location: Recollet Falls, French River rest area
Date: August 1, 2010

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Red fruit of the wild calla.

Location: Recollet Falls, French River rest area
Date: August 1, 2010

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Wild calla fruit, copyright 2010 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Pickerelweed mass, Burwash, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Pickerelweed

Flower: Violet; funnel-like, 5-10 mm long; on stalked spike; July-September.

Leaves: Single leaf from spreading rhizomes; parallel veins, lance- to egg-shaped, 5-25 cm long, 2-15 cm wide; long sheathing stalks.

Height: 30-60 cm.

Habitat: Grows in water < 1 m deep.

Interest: Pickerelweed forms dense colonies. Some people suggest that the name "Pickerelweed" reflects the habitat that this plant grows in is the same as the fish known as "pickerel".

Location: Burwash
Date: August 4, 2002.

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Pickerelweed seed pod.

Pickerelweed seed pod, after flowering.

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Pickerel weed.

Pickerelweed flower.

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Swamp smartweed

Flower: Tiny, pink flowers; 4 mm long; slender, spike-like clusters 4-17 cm long; 5 parted calyx, lacks petals; July-September.

Leaves: Lanceolate, tapering at both ends; 5-20 cm long; may be floating; may encircle the stem where leaf joins stem.

Height: 60-90 cm.

Other: May be Pennsylvania smartweed polygonum pensylvanicum); grows on moist shores.

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Swamp smartweed

Water smartweed

Water smartweed; perennial, floating aquatic form.

Flower: Pink; in dense, elongated clusters at tip of stem; 4-5 mm wide; 5 sepals; July-August.

Leaves: Alternate, short-stalked or stalkless, often reddish; oval shape, 2-15 cm long, blunt tip, float on water.

Height: floating form.

Habitat: Shallow lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, and marshes and on wet shorelines.

Other: This is the aquatic form of the water smartweed.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 7, 2002

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Cluster of Water Smartweed growing in quiet backwater of river.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 7, 2002

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Water smartweed mass, Burwash, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Floating-leaved burreed, McVittie Dam area, Copyright 2007 Andy Fyon.

Floating-leaved burreed; perennial.

Leaves: Elongated, flat, 2-10 mm wide, 20-100 cm long, floating.

Flowers: Male flower heads sit above bur-like female heads (1-2 cm thick).

Stems: Floating, up to 1 metre long.

Habitat: Marshes, rivers, creeks, ponds.

Location: McVittie Dam area, off Secord Road
Date: September 16, 2007

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Floating-leaved burreed flower. Female flower heads are bur-like, while the male flowers are smaller and sit above the female flowers.

Location: Elbow Lake
Date: August 9 2002.

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Floating-leaved burreed flower, Elbow Lake, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Floating-leaved pondweed

Floating-leaved pondweed, Paddy Creek, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Leaves: Leaf form can be quite variable; floating leaves are elliptical to oval in shape, stalked, leathery, waxy upper surface, many parallel veins, stalk joins at the base or of each leaf; submerged leaves are bladeless, stalkless, 10-40 cm long, 1-2 mm wide, 3-5 veined.

Flowers: Small, 2-5 cm long spikes of flower clusters at stem tip; mid-summer.

Habitat: Shallow lakes and ponds, growing from organic-rich bottoms.

Similar plant: Floating-leaved pondweed is distinguished from Water shield by the junction of the stalk at the base of the leaf for floating-leaved pondweed vs. at the centre of each floating leaf for water shield.

Information Source: Susan J. Meades, Biologist, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.

Location: Paddy Creek, off Secord road
Date: August 8, 2002.

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Floating-leaved pondweed, Burwash Ontario.

Floating-leaved pondweed.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 7, 2002.

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Water shield, Elbow Lake, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Water Shield; perennial, aquatic herb

Leaves: Oval and not split; 4-10 cm long; floating; underside is very slimy; stem is attached to the centre of the leaf.

Stem: Submerged, slimy, attached to the centre of the leaf.

Flowers: Dull purple-red colour; 3-parted with 3 petals and 3 similar sepals; sits slightly above the water surface on stalks; June-August.

Habitat: Quiet, shallow lakes and ponds.

Location: Elbow lake
Date: August 9, 2002.

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Water shield flower.

Location: Elbow lake
Date: August 9, 2002.

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Water shield flower, Elbow Lake, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Watershield, copyright Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com.

Water shield leaves growing on a beaver pond.

Location: South of Killarney Highway
Date: May 26, 2012.

Ribbon-leaved pondweed, Copyright 2007 Andy Fyon.

Ribbon-leaved pondweed; perennial

Flowers: 2-4 mm wide; 4 sepal-like bracts in narrow whorled clusters that resemble spikes; grow from leaf axils; mid-summer.

Leaves: Alternate, with leaf-like bracts and parallel veins; floating leaves are 3-8 cm long, oval to linear, stalked.

Stems: Long and flexible; 1-2 mm thick, up to 2 m long.

Habitat: In shallow ponds, lakes, stagnant water such as ponds created by water crossings.

Location: McVittie Dam railroad area
Date: September 16, 2007

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Floating Bulrush; aquatic; perennial sedge; also known as Mermaids Hair.

Flowers: Single, stalkless spiklets up to 13 mm long; raised slightly above the water surface; mid-summer.

Leaves: Submerged, weak, grass-like; often forms large mats.

Stems: Weak; up to 100 cm long; floating or submerged.

Location: Elbow Lake
Date: August 9, 2002.

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Floating Bulrush, Elbow Lake, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Lesser duckweed

Lesser Duckweed

Free-floating plant.

Leaves: This type of plant is not differentiated into a leaf and stem. Small green flattened oval or rounded "leaf". Less than 6 mm across.

Other: Has thin root hanging below the "leaf", under the water. May occur as a single plant or in colonies of plants. Ducks eat these plants.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 27, 2000

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Common bladderwort; perennial herd, free floating.

Flower: Yellow; 1-2 cm long; 2 equal lips; lower lip is spurred; occurs above the water on a stalk up to 10 cm tall; July-August.

Height: Flower stalk up to 10 cm tall.

Leaves: Up to 5 cm long, finely divided with many bladder-like "bulbs" scattered among the leaflets.

Habitat: Quiet waters in lakes and rivers.

Other: The bladders trap prey that brush against them. This is how the plant supplements its nutritional intake.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 7, 2002

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Common bladderwort

Common bladderwort flowers, copyright 2005 Andy Fyon.

Cluster of Horned Bladderwort growing along a crack and depression in a rock.  This variety is similar to Common Bladderwort except that Horned Bladderwort is characterized by a distinctive spur at the base of the flower.

Location: Killarney lighthouse
Date: July 10, 2005

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Water lobelia, Elbow Lake, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Water lobelia; perennial herb; aquatic.

Flower: Violet or white; tubular; 1-2 cm long; occurs towards top of stem tip; July-August

Leaves: Submerged; linear; generally not obvious from surface.

Stem: Stems up to 1 m tall, but most of the stem is below the water surface.

Height: a few cm above the water surface.

Habitat: Lake shoes and in up to 50 cm of water; nutrient-poor acidic lakes.

Location: Elbow Lake
Date: August 9, 2002

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Common cattail; perennial; spreads from rhizomes.

Family: Cattail

Flower: Male spike at top of stem, touching female spike on bottom; female flower spike consists of a dense mass of tiny flowers; the male upper portion of the flower spike disappears after the female portion, on the bottom, is pollinated; female spike is 10-20 cm long; July.

Leaves: Flat, 10-25 mm wide; spongy but very strong; olive green colour; parallel veined; up to 30 cm in length, but the lower portion occurs as a sheath around the flower stalk.

Flower stalk: Central cylindrical stem; surrounded by basal leaves.

Height: up to 2.5 m.

Habitat: Occurs in ditches, shallow rivers, lakes, and marshes; prefers standing water.

See photo below.

Location: Killarney
Date: July 7, 2002.

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Cat tail, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

cattail_seed

Cattail in seed. The wind easily distributes the fluffy masses of seeds.

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Hardstem bulrush; Perennial sedge.

Leaves: Inconspicuous.

Stem: Flowering, rounded, olive green, hard core.

Flower clusters: Clusters of spiklets that seem to grow from the side of the stem; spiklets are 5-10 mm long; brownish scales.

Height: 1-3 m

Habitat: Grows in shallow water or on shores of lakes and quiet bays.

Other: Its hard stem distinguishes it from the softstem bulrush.

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Hardstem bulrush

Hardstem bulrush, Elbow Lake, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Hardstem bulrush flower cluster growing out of the side of the the stem.

Location: Elbow Lake
Date: July 13, 2002

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Softstem Bullrush, Burwash, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Softstem bulrush; Perennial sedge.

Leaves: Inconspicuous.

Stem: Flowering, rounded, light blue-green colour; soft and easily crushed by your fingers.

Flower clusters: In spikelet form; clusters that seem to grow from the side of the stem; spiklets are 5-10 mm long; orange-brown scales.

Height: 1-3 m

Other: Its soft stem distinguishes it from the Hardstem bulrush.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 7, 2002.

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Detail of spikelet of flower clusters of Softstem Bulrush.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 7, 2002.

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Softstem Bullrush, Burwash, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Small-fruited bulrush plant, copyright 2005 Andy Fyon.

Small-fruited Bulrush; perennial sedge

Family: Sedge

Leaves: Inconspicuous.

Stem: Triangular in shape; multiple stems emerge from rhizome; up to 2 m tall; flowering stems loosely tufted with red-coloured nodes; coarse, grass-like leaves that emerge from the stem and base.

Flower clusters: Non-wooly spiklets that are up to 10 mm in length; looks like an umbrel.

Height: Up to 2 m

Habitat: Grows in marshes, ditches and wet meadows.

Location: Burwash
Date: July 1, 2005

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Small-fruited bulrush flower head.

Location: Burwash
Date: July 1, 2005

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Small-fruited bulrush flower, copyright 2005 Andy Fyon.

Marsh cinquefoil, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon

Marsh cinquefoil

Leaves: Pinnately compound; 5-7 toothed leaflets, each 5-10 cm long and 1-3 cm wide.

Flowers: Few, red or purple, 5 parts; petals shorter and narrower than sepals; 2 cm wide; summer. See following photo.

Fruit: Achenes, 1 mm long; red-brown.

Stem: Red, erect, woody, long.

Height: 20-60 cm.

Interest: During the Middle Ages, cinquefoil was commonly included in love potions.

Location: Paddy Creek area
Date: July 13, 2003

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Marsh cinquefoil flower.

Location: Killarney Highway
Date: July 3, 2004.

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Marsh cinquefoil flower, Copyright 2004 Andy Fyon.

Water plantain.

Water plantain

Flower: White; up to 8 mm wide; 3 sepals, 3 petals on 1-4 cm long stalks; summer.

Leaves: Basal, up to 15 cm long, oval to elliptical, long stalked with parallel veins.

Stem: Leafless flowering stalk.

Height: 30 - 100 cm.

Habitat: Marshes, lakes, streams, ditches.

Other: The species name (plantago-aquatica) means "plantain-leaved water plant" to distinguish from the land-based common plantain.

Location: Sudbury ditch; also see in Killarney (August 4, 2001)
Date: July 22, 2001

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Pipewort

Flower: White; single long-stalked, button-shaped flower head, 4-6 mm in diameter on stalk that is 3-20 cm tall; usually raised above water; minute flowers; hairy sepals and basal bracts; late-July to September.

Leaves: 2-5 mm wide; 2-10 cm long; parallel veins; basal rosettes.

Stem: Leafless flowering stalk, 3-20 cm tall; taller in water.

Height: up to 20 cm.

Habitat: Acidic lakes, on floating fen mats, muddy shoreline; may form dense turfs in shallow water.

Other: Perennial, aquatic herb.

Interest: Eriocaulon is derived from the Greek word "erion", which means "wool", and kaulos, which means "plant stem"; hence "wooly stem".  Aquaticum comes from the Latin, aquaticus, which means living, growing, or found in, or by, the water.

Location: Britt area
Date: August 1, 2010

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Pipewort, copyright Andy Fyon, 2010,  ontariowildflower.com

Water horsetail, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Water horsetail; aquatic perennial; lack flowers and true leaves.

Spore cluster: Yellow or brown cones at the tip of stem, 2-5 cm long; rounded tip; all summer.

Leaves: Whorled scales at stem and branch nodes.

Stem: Consists of soft, hollow segments up to 5 cm long; notable ridges on stem; branches may be absent; stem nodes or sheaths are dark brown and have 15-20 teeth.

Rhizomes: The plant reproduces by spores and by underground rhizomes. The rhizomes send up two different types of shoots at different times of the year. In the spring, the shoots are brown-coloured, unbranched, hollow, and jointed. At the tip of the spring shoot is the brown-coloured spore-producing cone. After the spore-shoots die, the second green shoot emerges. These have whorls of green-coloured branches (not illustrated).

Height: Stems up to 1 m and 1 cm in diameter.

Habitat: In dense colonies in shallow water at edges of lakes, fens, marshes, streams, swamps, and ditches.

Other: Horsetails are the direct descendents of the giant horsetails that formed primeval forests 300 million years ago. Horsetails were used by both Europeans and First Nation folks to scour, sand, and file items, such as pots, because the stems contain an high silica content.  Horsetails contain an enzyme that destroys vitamin B1 (thiamine). Horsetails have caused deaths in livestock. Horsetails can also affect humans.

Location: Paddy Creek
Date: August 8, 2002

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Small yellow water crowfoot; perennial; aquatic.

Flower: Yellow; 5-8 petals, 4-8 mm long; 5 sepals; clusters of 1 to 4 flowers at the terminal parts of each stem; June to July.

Leaves: Few long-petioled basal leaves; upper leaves are commonly floating on submersed plants; flat blades deeply 3-lobed or dissected;  the divisions are forked 2-3 times; usually 0.8 - 2 cm long and 1.5 - 2.5 cm wide.

Stem: Elongate stems float on water or creep along muddy shore lines; rooting at the nodes, floating when submersed, sparsely branched, 1-50 cm long.

Height: up to 5 cm above the water surface.

Habitat: Clear, cold ponds, shores, or meadows in areas where there is not forest cover.

Location: Highway 144, 17 km south of intersection with Highway 101
Date: June 27, 2003

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Small yellow water crowfoot, copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Small yellow water crowfoot leaves, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Small yellow water crowfoot leaves.

Location: Highway 144, 17 km south of intersection with Highway 101
Date: June 27, 2003

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Patch of small yellow water crowfoot leaves growing in a ditch.

Location: Highway 144, 17 km south of intersection with Highway 101
Date: June 27, 2003

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Small yellow water crowfoot mass, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Northern water milfoil, copyright 2002, Andy Fyon

Northern Water Milfoil; native; rooted or floating submerged herb.

Flower: Axils on upper leaves that are raised about the water surface; blooms throughout the summer.

Leaves: Feather-like and in whorls around the stem; 1-5 cm long; dark green; divided into as many as 12 segments; stem is white or pink coloured.

Stem: White or pink coloured.

Habitat: Lakes, ponds, streams; generally prefers clear water.

Interest: There are several varieties of milfoils that are difficult to identify. The European Milfoil was introduced and is a serious problem in many lakes. Milfoil is an important food for moose. Ducks eat the foliage and fruit. Beds of milfoil provide cover for fish and water insects.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 29, 2002

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Northern water milfoil flower.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 29, 2002

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Northern water milfoil flower, copyroght 2002 Andy Fyon

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URL: http://www.ontariowildflower.com/lakes.htm
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Andy Fyon

June 3, 2012

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