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Andy's Northern Ontario Wildflowers

Flowering Shrubs

"Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.". -- Albert Einstein

 

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Illustrated on this page are some flowering shrubs found in northern Ontario, near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.

Shrubs are low woody plants. A shrub may have multiple shoots or stems at its base and is generally less than  5 m in height at maturity. Reference.  Many use the word "shrub" to describe the particular physical structural or plant life-form of woody plants.

Many of the shrubs illustrated on this page are found in a geographic area that lies within the transition of the boreal forest region and the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence forest region.

Habitat:

Flowering shrubs occur in several habitats:

The shrubs generally flower in the spring. Many of the shrubs produce fruit that is an important source of food for many birds and animals.

Flowering shrubs found in this area:


American mountain ash.

American mountain ash

Flower: White, 7 mm in diameter; 5 petals; in dense round or flat-topped clusters 5-15 cm in diameter; June-July.

Leaves: Alternate, stalked, compound with 11-17 leaflets; leaflets are lance-shaped; pointed tip, 5-10 cm long, 1-2.5 cm wide; toothed.

Height: 10 m.

Fruit: Bright red, round berries, 7 mm in diameter; berries are a preferred food source for many birds. Because the fruit hangs  throughout winter, the berries excellent emergency food; August-September.

Habitat: Common along fencelines and windbreaks, hillsides or forest clearings. It prefers full sunlight and will grow under a variety of conditions. It will not tolerate flooding.

Other: LEAVES CONTAIN CYANIDE AND ARE POISONOUS.

Interest: One superstition holds that on the eve of May day, it was customary to tie branches of Mountain Ash over barn doors to protect livestock from evil spirits.

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American mountain ash fruit.

Language of Flowers: Mountain ash means "prudence" and "I watch over you". Source

In Ojibway, Mountain ash is called bearberry or ma-Ko-me-none (Source Andy Yesno, Eabametoong First Nation).

Location: Burwash
Date: September 16, 2006

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Mountain ash fruit, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon.

Bebb's willow; also known as Smooth Bebb Willow, Beaked Willow, Long Beaked Willow, Livid Willow, and Diamond Willow.

Small tree or multi-stemmed shrub; spreading branches; grey colour when mature and reddy-brown when young.

Height: Up to 5 m tall.

Leaves: Alternate, simple, elliptical, pointed tip, 3-7 cm long and 1-3 cm wide; grayish when young turning green when mature; gray or whitish underneath; slightly saw-toothed or wavy.

Flower: Male and female flowers on separate shrubs; male catkins 1-3 cm long; female catkins 2-7 cm long; male and female catkins on separate plants; catkins appear with leaves in late May to early June.

Habitat: Prefers moist sandy or gravelly soils, but tolerates a wide variety of soil textures; tolerates alkaline soils, but not extremely acidic or alkaline conditions; prefers moist sites; can survive short periods of standing water; not drought tolerant.

Interest: The name "Bebb" comes from Michael Bebb, a botanist who specialized in willows and who lived from 1833 to 1895.

Location: Burwash
Date: May 20, 2001.

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Debb's willow shrub

Bush honeysuckle; also known as  Northern Bush Honeysuckle, Bush Honeysuckle, Dwarf Bush Honeysuckle, Life-of-Man, Yellow Flowered Upright Honeysuckle.

Shrub

Family: Honeysuckle

Flower: Yellow and turn orange; funnel-shaped; 5 lobes; 2 cm long; clusters of 2-6 at branch tips or in leaf axils; June-early July.

Leaves: Opposite, simple, egg-shaped to oblong, tapering to a point; 5-13 cm long; 1.5 - 6 cm wide; upper surface darker green compared to underside; margins toothed.

Height: 1 m.

Habitat: Dry, infertile soil in cool, sandy or rocky woods, on cliffs, and in open pastures. It tolerates high pH soils and windy conditions.

Interest: This shrub is self sterile. Therefore, to set seed, the flower must be pollinated by insects that have travelled from another patch, usually some distance away. The flowers are adapted for pollination by bumblebees, butterflies and hawkmoths.

Location: Makynen Road, Sudbury
Date: July 1, 2002.

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Bush honeysuckle plant, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Bush honeysuckle leaves and flowers, copyright 2005 Andy Fyon.

Bush honeysuckle leaves and flowers.

Location: Paddy Creek
Date: July 1, 2005

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Bush honeysuckle flower, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Bush honeysuckle flower detail.

Location: Makynen Road, Sudbury
Date: July 1, 2002.

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chokecherry flower buds, copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Choke cherry, or chokecherry

Flower: White; 8-10 mm wide; 5 petals; stalks 4-8 mm long; 10-25 in elongated clusters; May-June.

Leaves: Alternate, widely oval to egg-shaped; 4-12 cm long; 2-6 cm wide; short-pointed at tip and tapered or rounded at base; margins have fine teeth.

Bark: Reddish-brown to purplish-grey; may have a strong, unpleasant odor when bruised.

Height: 2-3 m tall; rarely up to 10 m tall and tree-like.

Fruit: Deep red, ripening to blackish, round cherries; 8-10 mm in diameter, juicy with large pit in centre; August - September.

Habitat: Open areas, old fields, fence lines, edges of forests.

Interest: Spreads from shoots and forms thickets. This shrub bears consistent, heavy crops of fruit that is a source of food for many birds and mammals.  Choke cherry is a host of black knot fungus that shows up as black growths on branches.

ALL PARTS OF THE CHOKE CHERRY, EXCEPT THE BERRIES, ARE POISONOUS TO HUMANS.  There are cases where children have been poisoned and have died after ingesting large quantities of berries, which contain the seeds.

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Chock cherry flower

Choke cherry flowers.

Location: Burwash
Date: June 9, 2002

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chokecherry_tree

Choke cherry shrub in full bloom - the shrub spreads by suckers.

Location: Burwash
Date: June 9, 2002.

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Black knot fungus, copyright 2004, Andy Fyon.

Black knot fungus (Apiosporina morbosa) on chokecherry shrub.  Black knot fungus forms large knots that are caused by abnormal growths of bark infected with the fungus.  The knots encircle the branch and kill it. Spores from the fungus are released easily by wind and rain. If left unchecked the tree eventually dies.

Location: Burwash
Date: April 10, 2004

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Choke cherry fruit. Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Choke cherry fruit.

Location: Sudbury
Date: August 10, 2002

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common juniper, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Common juniper

Leaves: Needle-like, prickly.

Bark: Branchlets are greenish and smooth, becoming pale- to dark-brown with ridges and scaly bark.

Height: up to 1.5 m tall.

Fruit: Round, berry-like cones, fleshy, 6-10 mm wide, bluish-white; waxy powder; May-June.

Stem: Branches curve upward.

Other: Juniper berries were used as the flavoring agent in gin. Juniper trees were also used to make soap and perfume. Use with caution because excessive use may cause kidney irritation. There are reports that juniper consumption may raise glucose levels - of concern to people with diabetes.  In addition, application of the juniper oil directly to skin can cause a rash.

Location: Burwash

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common_juniper_berry

Common juniper berry

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Common Snowberry; perennial shrub; Also known as White coralberry and Snowberry.

Family: Honeysuckle (Caprifoliaceae)

Flowers: Pink to white; small, dense, clusters at branch tips or in axils of upper leaves; bell-shaped, 4-7 mm long, stamens and non-hairy style do not stick out beyond the end of the flower; June - July.

Leaves: Opposite, oval, 2-4 cm long.

Bark: Reddish brown, shreddy bark.

Height: Up to 1 m tall.

Fruit: White, waxy, oval to round; berry-like; 4-6 mm across; commonly stays on the stem during the winter; not edible.

Stem: Erets shrub with many branches; hollow-stemmed.

Habitat: Rocky banks and roadsides.

Other: Often forms thickets from suckers. Branches were used to make brooms; hollowed out the twigs were used to make pipe stems and whistles. The berries and stems are considered poisonous to humans and some animals.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 15, 2010

More Information from borealforest.org

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Common snowberry fruit, copyright 2010 Andy Fyon, ontariowildflower.com

Common snowberry fruit.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 15, 2015

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Common snowberry shrub form in fruit.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 15, 2015

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Common snowberry shrub, copyright 2010 Andy Fyon, ontariowildflower.com

Creeping juniper

Leaves: Needle-like, prickly.

Bark: Branchlets are greenish and smooth, becoming pale- to dark-brown with ridges and scaly bark.

Height: up to 0.5 m tall.

Fruit: Round, berry-like cones, fleshy, 6-10 mm wide, bluish-white; waxy powder; May-June.

Other: Low spreading shrub.

Location: Manitoulin Island
Date: July 25, 2006

juniper

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Spreading dogbane, copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Location: Trout Lake Road
Date: August 8, 2002

Spreading Dogbane; also known as Indian Hemp; native shrub.

Family: Dogbane (Apocynaceae)

Flower: Pinkish, fragrant; 5 spreading lobes, bell-shaped, 8 mm wide; stalked; June-July.

Leaves: Opposite, stalked; hanging, simple, egg-shaped with pointed tip; 2-7 cm long; 2-6 cm wide.

Stem: Smooth and much branched.

Height: Flowering stems 10-70 cm tall.

Seeds: Note the seed pods.

Habitat: Occurs in open, sunny pastures, edges of forests, waste areas, fields and roadsides and other waster areas, usually in dry areas or on shallow soils.

Interest: All parts of the plant contain milky juice when broken. The word Apocynum means "a plant that a dog should keep away from". Spreading Dogbane is reported to be poisonous, but this has not been proven.

Language of Flowers: Means "deceit" or "falsehood". Source

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Spreading dogbane flower, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Spreading dogbane that has formed seed pods.

Location: Makynen Road, Sudbury
Date: July 6, 2003.

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Red osier dogwood

Flower: Creamy white blossoms; 4 petals; flat-toped clusters at tips of branches; June.

Leaves: Untoothed; pairs on opposite sides of twigs; dark green on top, lighter green underneath; 5-7 pairs of prominent veins.

Fruit: White or bluish-tinged berries; September. See following photos.

Stem: Bushy shrub; bark is lime green in summer and wine-red in winter; becomes grey with age.

Habitat: Prefers moist soil found in swamps and streamside forest. It also occurs in open forest and thickets and bog-forest edges and disturbed sites.

Interest: Dogwood branches were used to make fish traps and  basket rims. Larger limbs were used to make frame poles for tents. The bark was twisted into a type of rope used to lash fish traps, raised caches, and other structures. The bark was mixed with other organic materials to make a red dye.

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Red osier dogwood, copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Red osier dogwood flower, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Red osier dogwood flower. Note the red colour of the branch.

Location: Burwash
Date: June 22, 2002

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Dogwood fruit, copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Red osier dogwood fruit. Note the white colour of the fruit.

Location: Kingston
Date: August 3, 2003.

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Dogwood plant in spring.

Red osier dogwood plant in the early spring. Note the distinctive red colour of the wood.

Location: Burwash
Date: April 22, 2001

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Serviceberry flower, Copyright 2004 Andy Fyon

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Downy Serviceberry; also known as Saskatoon, Indian pear, shadbush.

Also known as Saskatoon-berry

Flower: White; erect clusters; 5 petals and 5 green sepals; May-early June.

Leaves: Oval to almost circular; 2-6 cm long; about 25 teeth to a side; tapered to a sharp tip; many be hairy on underside; folded or very small at flowering time.

Bark: Slightly twisted vertical lines of a darker colour.

Height: Usually less than 10 m tall.

Fruit: Small, reddish or purplish; ripens late July or early August.

Habitat: It prefers full sun and on moist, well-drained soil along roadsides, abandoned fields, in existing windbreaks and in woodlands.  It does not tolerate extremely wet or the deep shade.

Other: Are many different species that are difficult to distinguish. Single tree or small clusters of trees. The fruit is a very important food source for birds preparing for the fall migration. The red squirrel and chipmunk also eat the fruit. Because it flowers so early, the flower in spring is an important source of pollen and nectar for bees and other insects.

Location: Trout Lake Road
Date: May 22, 2004

Serviceberry tree, Copyright 2004 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Downy Serviceberry tree found on the edge of the Wanapetei River. Note that the leaves are not conspicuous at the time the flowers peak. Serviceberry is one of the earlier flowering shrubs in the Sudbury area.

Location: Secord Road, Wanapetei River.
Date: May 22, 2004.

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Serviceberry fruit, copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Serviceberry fruit.

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Red-berried elder, copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Red-berried elder

Flower: Yellow-white; 5 petals; 3-6 mm wide; elongated, pyramid-shaped clusters 5-15 cm long; May-June.

Leaves: Opposite; 5-13 cm long, 2-6 cm wide; on stalks; 5-7 leaflets egg- to lance-shaped with pointed tip; upper surface green, underside paler; toothed margins.

Fruit: Bright red, rounded; 5 mm wide; clusters; July - August.

Height: Up to 4 m tall.

Habitat: Occurs in a range of habitats from wet or moist sites along river edge or lakeside to moist mixed forest swamps and drier mixed forests.

Other: The berries, bark, leaves, and roots are poisonous. Click here for more information on the poisonous qualities.  The flowers do not smell very nice.

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Red-berried elder flower bud, copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Red-berried elder: The flower buds in early spring have a distinctive "bud-shape".

Other: Compared to the elderberry, the red-berried elder has cone-shaped flower clusters in May and poisonous, bright red fruit (See following photo). By contrast, the elderberry (see following shrub) has flat-topped flower clusters in June-July and edible purplish fruit. 

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Red-berried elder fruit, copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Red-berried elder fruit.

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Red-berried elder shrub, copyright 2004 Andy Fyon.

Red-berried elder shrub in bloom.

Location: Burwash
Date: May 23, 2004.

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Elderberry

Flower: Creamy white; parasol or flat-topped cluster at tips of branches; each flower 6 mm across and star-shaped; 5 petals; mid-July.

Leaves: Compound, opposite with 5 - 15 leaflets (usually 7); oval-shaped, toothed, pointed tip.

Fruit: Deep purple to black berries; round berry with 3-5 seeds; late August - September.

Other: Compared to the red-berried elder (see previous shrub), the elderberry has flat-topped flower clusters in June-July and edible purplish fruit.  The red-berried elder has cone-shaped flower clusters in May and poisonous, bright red fruit.

Location: Burwash
Date: July 26, 2009

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Elderberry, copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Elderberry tree, copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Elderberry shrub with flat topped flower head.

Interest: The elderberry has reputations for great powers of good and evil. The evil folklore: a) no carpenter would make a cradle of elderberry wood for fear of bringing harm to the baby; b) the wood for Christ's cross was elderberry; c) if seen in a dream, it is supposed to mean that illness is on the way. The good folklore: a) the wood wards off witches if collected on the last day of April and put on the windows and doors of houses.

Danger: Some species of elderberry leaves, stems, and roots contain compounds of cyanide. The cooked berries are reported to be safe and are used to make wine, jellies, and preserves.

Location: Burwash
Date: July 26, 2009

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Elderberry fruit, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Elderberry fruit.

Location: Burwash
Date: September 14, 2003

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Hawthorn shrub with fruit, Copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Hawthorne flower, Copyright 2006 Andy Fyon.

Fanleaf Hawthorn or Fireberry hawthorn; shrub or small tree; also known as New England hawthorn.

Flower: White to pink; do not smell pleasant; numerous flat-topped clusters; 5 petals; < 2 cm across; May - June.

Leaves: Alternate, simple, elliptic to rounded; sometimes bent backward; 3-5 cm long; toothed.

Branches: Numerous; crooked trunk, branches have numerous sharp thorns 5-6 cm long; crooked twigs.

Fruit: Red fruit like a small apple; tipped with sepals; 8-12 mm wide; fruit often persist into winter; September - October.

Height: Up to 6 m and spreads widely into thickets.

Habitat: Prefers disturbed, open areas such as fence lines, old meadows or fields, old logging camps or homesteads.

Other: There are several varieties of hawthorn that occur in Ontario:

  • Fanleaf hawthorn (Crataegus flabellata; illustrated here)

  • Fireberry hawthorn (Crataegus chrysocarpa)
  • Cockspur hawthorn (Crataegus crus-galli)
  • Dotted hawthorn (Crataegus punctata)
  • Fleshy hawthorn (Crataegus succulenta)
  • Black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii)
  • Long-spined hawthorn or Fleshy hawthorn (Crataegus succulenta)
  • Scarlet hawthorn (Crataegus pedicellata)
  • Downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis).

According to L. Kershaw (Trees of Ontario), only the Fanleaf and the Fireberry hawthorn grow in the Sudbury area. The other hawthorns grow in southern Ontario.

Interest: Hawthorn is important as a source of food for birds and animals. The fruit hangs quite late into winter. Also important is the protection offered to small birds and animals by the heavy thorns.

Fruit Location: Paddy Creek, C109 ski-doo trail.
Date: October 14, 2000.

Flower Location: Paddy Creek, C109 ski-doo trail.
Date: May 28, 2006

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Fanleaf Hawthorn fruit detail. Note the thorn in the centre of the image and the leaves that are bent backward.

Location: Paddy Creek, C109 ski-doo trail.
Date: October 14, 2000.

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Hawthorn fruit, copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Fly honeysuckle, Burwash, Ontario, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Fly honeysuckle; also known as Medaddy Bush, American Fly Honeysuckle; perennial shrub.

This is an early flowering shrub found in moist deciduous or mixed forests. Fly Honeysuckle is named after a former German botanist.

Habit: Loosely branched erect shrub.

Flower: Pale yellow to yellowish green; funnel-shaped; 5 short lobes; 1.2 - 1.8 cm long; in pairs on stalks from leaf axils; May - June.

Leaves: Opposite, simple, egg-shaped to oblong, blunt tip; rounded base; 3-9 cm long, 1-3 cm wide; bright green upper surface; no teeth on margins; short stalks.

Height: 1.5 m.

Habitat: Damp, rocky woods.

Fruit: Red; egg-shaped; 6 mm wide; June-July.

Interest: Lonicera was named after a former German botanist.

Language of Flowers: The name Honeysuckle means "The colour of my fate", "Devoted love", and "Rustic beauty."

Location: Trout Lake Road
Date: May 19, 2002

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Fly honeysuckle fruit.

Location: Paddy Creek Trail (C109)
Date: July 1, 2003

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Fly honeysuckle fruit, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Downy arrow-wood (Viburnum rafinesquianum), Copyright 2007 Andy Fyon www.ontariowildflower.com

Location: Goat Island alvar
Date: September 2, 2007

Fragrant sumac; also known as Skunkbush.

Family: Anacardiaceae (Cashew Family)

Flower: Pale yellow, <2mm across; 5 petals, but very small; dense clusters; flowers before leaves appear in full; May - June.

Leaves: Alternate; three leaflets; toothed margin particularly between middle and tip; petioles up to 2 cm long; aromatic when crushed.

Fruit: Hairy reddish fruit; July-August.

Stem: Straight and erect; woody.

Height: Generally <1-2 m in height; shrub-like.

Habit: Grows on dry calcareous soils of open Alvar areas on Manitoulin Island.

Interest: A calciphile plant whose leave have a strong scent when crushed.

More info:
a) www.missouriplants.com/Yellowalt/Rhus_aromatica_page.html
b) Shrubs of the Boreal Forest

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Downy arrow-wood  (Vibrunum rafinesquianum), Copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Fragrant sumac flowers.

Location: Gore Bay airport, Manitoulin Island
Date: May 26, 2007.

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Fragrant sumac fruit, copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Fragrant sumac fruit.

Location: Goat Island
Date: June 21, 2009.

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Goldthread (Coptis trifolia); also known as Alaska Goldthread, Canker Root, Common Goldthread, Trifoliate Goldthread, Vegetable Gold; perennial evergreen herb  with creeping rootstalk.

Family: Buttercup (Ranunculaceae)

Flower: White, star-shaped, 5-7 petals; usually solitary at tip of leafless stalks; May-July.

Leaves: Basal leaves on long slender stalks, triangular shape, 2-5 cm wide, compound with 3 leaflets, upper surface is shiny dark green, margins with rounded teeth.

Height: 7-15 cm.

Habitat: Cool, moist habitats in coniferous forests, swamps, bogs, road banks,  thickets, mossy places, cedar swamps, and in damp woods. Prefers low light, cool, moist conditions on relatively infertile soils, which are acidic. Goldthread does not tolerate  disturbance and disappears after logging. Requires some shade, possibly because of its preference for moist sites.

Interest: The Goldthread rootstalk is bright yellow or gold in colour and looks like a bit of golden wire. It is reported that Native Americans chewed roots to treat mouth sores and made tea from the roots to treat mouth sores. The name Coptis means "cut", referring to the divided leaves.

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Goldthread flowers, Burwash Ontario, copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Goldthread leaf and golden root, Copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Goldthread leaves are bright green with a waxy appearance.

Location: Paddy Creek
Date: May 3, 2009

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Goldthread wildflower, Copyright 2006 Andy Fyon.

Cluster of Goldthread on the edge of a coniferous forest.

Location: Burwash
Date: May 20, 2005

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Goldthread leaves.

Patch of Goldthread in late fall.

Location: Burwash
Date: October 14, 2000.

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Goldthread and ground pine.

Patch of Goldthread and ground pine under a coniferous tree.

Location: Burwash
Date: December 16, 2001.

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Hairy honeysuckle flower, copyright 2005 Andy Fyon.

Hairy honeysuckle; climbing deciduous shrub or vine; may be trailing; woody branches.

Habit: Loosely branched, climbing shrub.

Flower: Orange to yellow that turn reddish; narrow tubes with 5 spreading lobes; about 2 cm long; occur in a whorled cluster on the uppermost leaves; June - July.

Leaves: Opposite, short stalked; oval or egg-shaped; 5-10 cm long and 2- 8 cm wide; upper side has flattened hairs; lower side has soft hairs; upper leaves are united around the stem.

Height: Climbs to 2-3 m tall.

Habitat: Mixed forest and forest openings and along shorelines.

Fruit: Orange to red fruit in stalked clusters from centre of uppermost leaves; ripen August - September.

Language of Flowers: The name Honeysuckle means "The colour of my fate", "Devoted love", and "Rustic beauty."

Location: Paddy Creek trail
Date: July 1, 2005

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Hairy honeysuckle leaves and climbing stem.

Location: Paddy Creek trail
Date: July 1, 2003

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Hairy honeysuckle vine, copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Highbush cranberry shrub.

Highbush cranberry

Flower: Creamy-white; flat-topped clusters; 10-12 cm across; at ends of branches; each cluster composed of tiny fertile creamy-white flowers surrounded by showier white sterile flowers; June.

Leaves: Opposite; three-lobed; maple-like in appearance; edges may be smooth or toothed.

Fruit: Bright red berries; turn glossy or translucent after frost; may be present into winter; September.

Height: Up to 4 m tall.

Habitat: Wet areas, such as sides of rivers and lakes, swamps and bogs.

Interest: The fruit of the highbush cranberry is commonly observed in mid- to late-winter still hanging on the tree. It is a late winter food source for birds and animals.

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Highbush cranberry flower, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Highbush cranberry flower.

Location: Burwash
Date: June 22, 2002.

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Hignbush cranberry fruit.

Highbush cranberry fruit.

Location: Paddy Creek
Date: September 29, 2002.

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Hobblebush; Shrub; Also known as Moosewood, Witch-hobble.

Family: Honeysuckle (Caprifoliaceae)

Flower: White; large, flat clusters; the flower consists of an outer circle of sterile white flowers that surround an inner cluster of small fertile flowers; May - June.

Leaves: Opposite, velvety buds that develop into large, heart-shaped; upper surface is textured; edges are finely ; turns bronze-coloured in fall.

Stem: Generally multi-stemmed; bark is smooth and purplish-brown in colour.

Fruit: Turn cranberry red in late August and finally purple-black when fully ripe; oblong in shape..

Height: Up to 2 m.

Habitat: Prefer shade and rich soil; usually found in mixed forests.

Interest: The plant gets its name because when the tips touch the ground, roots can form and the shrub can literally "hobble" a person (trip up) that walks by and catches their toe.

Location: Duschesne Falls, North Bay
Date: May 15, 2010

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Hobblebush, copyright 2010 Andy Fyon, ontariowildflower.com

For more information about Hobblebush - Nova Scotia Wild Flora Society

Hobblebush flowers, copyright 2010 Andy Fyon, ontariowildflower.com

Hobblebush flowers and leaves.

Location: Duschesne Falls, North Bay
Date: May 15, 2010.

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Hobblebush flower, copyright 2010 Andy Fyon, ontariowildflower.com

Hobblebush flowers - note outer circle of large, sterile flowers and the inner cluster of fertile flowers.

Location: Duschesne Falls, North Bay
Date: May 15, 2010.

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Japanese bamboo or Japanese knotweed

Flower: Greenish-white; male and female flowers on separate plants; 3 mm long in clusters up to 8 cm long; 5 sepals, no petals; August-September.

Fruit: Seed-like, black, smooth, 3-sided.

Leaves: Rounded to ovate; 10-15 cm long; pointed.

Stems: Hollow, jointed and mottled.

Height: up to 2 m

Habit: Large, bushy, spreading plant. Waste places and roadsides.

This is an invasive exotic plant that should not be transplanted.

Location: Burwash
Date: September 7, 2002.

Japanese bamboo or japanese knotweed, Burwash, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

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Japanese bamboo flower, Burwash, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Japanese bamboo close-up of flowers and leaves.

Location: Burwash
Date: September 16, 2006

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Black and common low bush blueberry, copyright 2003 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Black and common low bush blueberry fruit. Location: Burwash; Date: August 7, 2003.

Click here for educational information about the blueberry provided by the Wild Blueberry Information Network

 

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Low sweet blueberry

Flower: White; bell-shaped with 5 small lobes, less 6 mm long; crowded clusters; May-June.

Leaves: Alternate, oval or narrowly lance-shaped, tapered at base and tip; 1-3 cm long; 4-10 mm wide.

Bark: Young branches are greenish-brown; older branches are reddish to blackish, hairless, with flaky ridged bark.

Height: Up to 60 cm, but usually less than 35 cm tall.

Fruit: Blue or black berries, depending on type (see below); 3 - 10 mm in diameter; June-August.

Habitat: Low sweet blueberry occurs on rocky or sandy areas that have been subject to forest fire or logging. The plant also occurs in swamps, bogs, and in depressions on rocky outcrops.

Interest: Blueberry fruit is a favourite food for birds and mammals, especially black bears. Blueberry fruit is picked and used raw or processes into jams or dried fruit. Blueberry bushes in the forest are less likely to flower and bear fruit. 

The following is modified from: The History of the Lowbush Blueberry Industry in Nova Scotia 1950-1990 (1993): Gordon Kinsman, Published by The Wild Blueberry Producers' Association of Nova Scotia:

Click here to Link to Publication

There are 4 kinds of lowbush blueberries grow wild in Canada. The fruits of all, with the possible exception of ground hurts, are harvested and sold commercially.
Common lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) plants have a shiny smooth leaf with toothed margins. It is the most abundant blueberry type in stands developed on abandoned hayfields and in other fields that have been burned for many years. It grows 6 to 45 cm tall. Fruit is bright blue-coloured with grey casting bloom and is borne in clusters.
Black lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) plants have blue-green leaves and black, shiny berries. It tends to increase more rapidly with repeated burning. It has the same characteristics as common lowbush, except fruit is black with no grey casting (bloom).
Velvet-leaf blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilloides Michx) has hairy leaves and stems and its leaves are not toothed. It is found in woodlands, is the most abundant species in blueberry fields recently developed from woods, and tends to be eliminated by repeated burning. Fruit is bright blue, covered with a grey casting, more tart than low sweet. The plants grow from six to twenty-four inches tall.
Ground hurts (Vaccinium boreale) is found in small numbers in exposed northern regions of Cape Breton Island and it is most abundant on the exposed highlands of Newfoundland. It is not economically important.

blueberry flower patch, copyright 2006, Andy Fyon. www.ontariowildflower.com

Blueberry patch growing in a bowl in a rock outcrop. The bowl traps rain water that helps the plant survive dry spells and to produce fruit.

Location: Secord Road
Date: May 6, 2006.

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Blueberry flower, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon. www.ontariowildflower.com

Blueberry flower.

Location: Burwash
Date: June 8, 2003

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meadow-sweet_flower

 

Broad-leaved meadow-sweet

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)

Flower: White; 5 petals; numerous in dense, narrow, cluster at branch tips; July-September.

Leaves: Alternate, coarsely toothed; oval or lance-shaped; 3-8 cm long; 1-3 cm wide; hairless.

Bark: Branchlets are yellowish-brown, hairless; older branches are purplish-grey with bark peeling off in papery-thin narrow strips.

Height: 0.5 - 1.5 m tall.

Habitat: Low, moist ground, meadows, fields, and edges of lakes and creeks.

Other: Aromatic leaves, like almond. In 1839, it was proven the meadowsweet contained salicylic acid, also known as aspirin. The name aspirin is a derivative of meadowsweet's botanical name - spirea.

Language of Flowers: Means "usefulness". Source

See following two photos.

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meadowsweet, copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Broad-leaved meadow-sweet shrub

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meadow-sweet_spring, copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontaropwildflower.com

Broad-leaved meadow-sweet in the spring, prior to leaves or flowers.

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Mountain holly shrub

Mountain holly

Flower: Yellow-green; small male flower in clusters of 2-4 on thread-like stalks about 2 cm long from leaf axils; May

Fruit: Red; 6 mm diameter; on thin stalks; August-September.

Leaves: Alternate; on purplish slender stalks about 1 cm long; egg-shaped; pointed tip; up to 7 cm long and 2.5 cm wide; upper surface brighter green compared to lower side.

Height: Up to 3 m

Habit: Dry to moist edges of lakes, coniferous and mixed forest, swamps.

Location: Burwash
Date: May 20, 2001

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Mountain-holly flowers.

Location: Trout Lake Road
Date: May 27, 2006

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Mountain holly flower, Copyright 2006 Andy Fyon.

Mountain maple

Flower: Erect clusters of yellowish-green flowers at ends of branches after leaves are fully grown; late June.

Leaves: Opposite, maple-shaped with coarse teeth along edges; 3-lobed; coarsely and irregularly toothed; reddish stalks; yellow to reddish brown colour in fall.

Stem: Straggling shrub to small bushy tree.

Bark: Reddish or grayish brown and usually smooth.

Height: Up to 6 m.

Fruit: Pairs of bright red winged fruit that turn brown when mature; September

Other: Also known as dwarf maple or Virginia maple.

Location: Secord Road
Date: June 4, 2006.

Mountain maple, copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

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Ninebark flowers and butterfly, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Ninebark; native deciduous shrub; Also known as Common ninebark, eastern ninebark.

Family:Rosaceae

Flower: Whitish pink flowers; < 1 cm in diameter; flowers occur in clusters up to 5 cm in diameter; May to June.

Leaves: Alternate, simple, deciduous; palmately veined; 3 to 5 lobed leaves; up to 7 cm long; light green to yellow-green leaf color in summer; yellow to bronze fall color.

Stem: Multi-stemmed shrub; upright, recurved stems.

Bark: Distinctive because of excessive peeling; tan, reddish brown.

Height: Up to 3 m.

Fruit: Occurs in dropping clusters; reddish; ripens in late August to September in this area. Birds eat the seed.

Habitat: Rocky areas on alvars, along streams, rocky banks, gravel bars and in moist thickets.

Interest: The common name comes from the extreme peeling of bark.  It is said that Ninebark has nine layers of bark. This is a commonly used shrub for domestic landscaping.

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Ninebark peeling bark, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Peeling bark on stems of Ninebark shrub.

Location: Goat Island, near Little Current, Manitoulin Island
Date: July 29, 2006.

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Ninebark seeds, copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Ninebark seed clusters are a food for birds.

Location: Meldrum Bay lighthouse, Manitoulin Island.
Date: July 26, 2006.

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Northern dewberry; perennial; trailing vine; also known as American Dewberry, Northern Dewberry, Prickly Dewberry, Dewberry, Dewberry Bush, and  Running Blackberry.

Flower: White; 10-15 mm wide; 5 petals; solitary or in terminal cluster of 2-5 on stems; June.

Leaves: Alternate, compound with 3-5 leaflets. 5-20 cm wide; terminal leaflet is egg-shaped to nearly elliptical with point.

Fruit: Rounded red clusters, raspberry-like; July-August.

Stem: Brown to purplish red with scattered prickles.

Height: 30 cm tall; whip-like branches 2-4 m long.

Habitat: Sun to part shade typical of open fields, woodlands and forest margins.

Interest: Rubus is a Latin name meaning red. Flagellaris refers to the long, thin whip-like appearance of the canes. The fruits are eaten in jams and are a source of food for birds and mammals. Colonies are often referred to as "brambles".

Location: Burwash
Date: June 30, 2004

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Flower of northern dewberry shrub, copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Northern dewberry.

Leaves of northern dewberry. The branches are whip-like.

Location: Burwash

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Northern dewberry fruit, Burwash, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Northern dewberry fruit.

Location: Burwash
Date: September 7, 2002.

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Partridgeberry; perennial shrub; also known as Checkerberry, Deer Berry, Twinberry, Deerberry, Partridge Berry, Partridge-berry, Partridgeberry, Snakevine, Two-eyed berry, and Winter Clover; evergreen perennial.

Family: Madder (Rubiaceae)

Flower: White, fragrant; pairs of tubular flowers; <1.5 cm long; coarse hairs inside tubular flower; June-July.

Leaves: Opposite, roundish, shiny, green with white veins; 1-2 cm long.

Fruit: One red berry-like fruit develops from the two flowers.

Height: 10-30 cm; creeper.

Habitat: Partridgeberry grows on a variety of soil types, including dry or moist knolls in woods, on sandy soils, or on rocky outcrops. The plant prefers light sandy or  medium loamy soils that is well drained. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils and can tolerate very acid soil. It can grow in semi-shade or full sun, but it requires moist soil. It grows close to the ground.

Interest: Trailing evergreen herb. Attractive woodland creeper. The flowers are joined so closely at their bases that they develop into a single berry  The fruit is "twin-eyed".

Location: Burwash

Date: June 30, 2003

See other Partridgeberry images.

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Partridgeberry, copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Partridgeberry flower, copyright 2005 Andy Fyon.

Detail of Partridgeberry flower illustrating the coarse hairs in the tubular flower.

Location: Burwash
Date: July 1, 2005

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Partridgeberry fruit, Burwash, Copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Partridgeberry fruit that survived the winter.

Location: Burwash hardwood forest
Date: May 4, 2007

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Pin cherry flower, copyright 2008 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Pin cherry; deciduous shrub; Also known as Bird cherry, Fire cherry, Wild red cherry, Hay cherry, Pigeon cherry.

Flower: White; up to 1.5 cm wide; 5 petals on stalks 1-2 cm long; in flat-topped clusters from leaf axils (May - early June).

Leaves: Lance-shaped with a long taper to a slender tip; up to 8 cm long; net veined.

Bark: Smooth on young trees, dark reddish with widely-spaced orange horizontal markings on mature trees.

Fruit: Single red berry on stem; 5-7 mm in diameter; July - September.  In the Sudbury area, the fruit seldom survive into August because the fruit are a favourite food for Robins, Cedar Waxwing, and other bird species.

Height: Up to 15 m, but generally much shorter.

Habitat: Dry to moist, open areas, such as along edges of forest,  roadsides, or disturbed areas.  Intolerant of shade, so usually found in waste areas, on the edges of deciduous or pine forest, in cut over or disturbed area; many occur as a single tree or in groves.

Other: The pits from the fruit remain viable for many ten's of years, waiting for the proper germination conditions.  All parts of the plant except the flesh of the fruit are poisonous.

Location: Manitoulin Island
Date: May 18, 2008

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pin cherry tree, copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Single pin cherry tree.

Location: Burwash

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pin cherry flowers, copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Pin cherry flowers in morning light.

Location Sudbury
Date: May 24, 2009

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Pin cherry fruit, copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Pin cherry fruit.

Location: Sudbury, Fyon garden
Date: July 25, 2009

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Purple-flowering raspberry, copyright 2003 Andy Fyon

Purple-flowering raspberry; native perennial shrub.

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)

Latin Name: Rubus odoratus is pronounced: ROO-bus oh-dor-AY-tus

Flower: Rose-purple; 3-5 cm in across; 5 petals; several flowers in loose cluster at ends of branches; June - July.

Leaves: Alternate; simple, long-stalks; similar in shape to maple leaves; 10-20 cm wide and long; 3-5 lobes; soft hairs on both sides; edges sharply toothed.

Stem: Straggling and grows into a thicket.

Height: Up to 2 m tall; branched; bristly hairs on stem.

Fruit: Flattened, dull red coloured; similar to large raspberries; 1 cm diameter; July - August.

Habitat: On edges of forest, in moist open woods, along roadsides, in rocky woods, thickets, and ravines.

Interest: Purple-flowering raspberry generally grows in thickets. It is similar to Thimbleberry, except that Thimbleberry has white flowers and Thimbleberry leaves have 3-lobes, rather than the 3-5 typical of purple-flowering raspberry. The fruit of the purple-flowering raspberry are not commonly eaten because they are extremely seedy, though they have a nice flavor. This member of the rose family has no thorns, but its new stems are covered with bristly hairs.

Purple-flowering raspberry is common in the Thunder bay area and south of Sudbury. It is not common in the immediate Sudbury area.

Location: Kingston
Date: August 1, 2003

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Purple-flowering raspberry fryit, copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Purple-flowering raspberry fruit. Note the similarity to flattened raspberries.

Location: Kingston
Date: August 4, 2003.

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Purple-flowering raspberry leaves, copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Purple-flowering raspberry leaves. Note the similarity to maple leaves.

Location: Thunder Bay, High Falls
Date: July 29, 2002.

Red currant fruit, Burwash, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Red currant; deciduous shrub.

Flower: Greenish-purple; saucer-shaped, less than 6 mm wide; 5 petals; in hanging elongated clusters from leaf axils; June.

Fruit: Bright red berries, smooth, 6-9 mm diameter in hanging clusters; July-August.

Leaves: Alternate, simple, 4-10 cm long; 5-10 cm wide; resembles a maple leaf; 3-5 lobed; pointed to rounded tips; margins have rounded to pointed teeth.

Stems: Spreading, trailing or ascending stems; lacks prickles.

Height: Less than 1 m.

Habit: Wet organic-rich areas in hardwood forests, conifer swamps, clay-rich areas, beside beaver ponds.

Interest: Red currant is a reclining shrub without barbs. It is generally less than 1 m in height.

Location: Burwash
Date: July 13, 2002

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Sand Cherry; native perennial shrub; Also known as Beach plum, Dwarf American Cherry, Great Lakes sand cherry.

Family: Rosaceae (Rose)

Flower: White; 5 petals; clusters of 2-4 flowers occur in leaf axils; 25-30 stamens; June.

Leaves: Alternate; narrow (10 to 18 mm wide) oblanceolate; dark green; 4-7 cm long; entire to finely toothed; lustrous on top surface and pale on lower surface.

Stem: Twigs are red but become gray with age.

Height: Up to 0.5 m high and 1 m. spread; prostrate growth.

Fruit: Turn a deep blackish purple; larger than choke cherry fruit; favourite fruit for wildlife; the fruit are edible; June-July.

Habitat: The Great Lakes sandcherry is often found on well drained glacial sand plains or sand dunes bordering larges bodies of water, on alvars, along gravel bars or shorelines, on cliff faces, rocky slopes, and on calcareous.

Interest: Sandcherry has an important role of stabilizing the sand dune.

Location: Manitoulin Island, Providence Bay
Date: June 11, 2005

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Sandcherry plant, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon

Sandcherry flower, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon.

Sandcherry flower (left).

Location: Manitoulin Island, Providence Bay
Date: June 11, 2005.

 

Sand Cherry fruit (below).
Location: Manitoulin Island, Carter's Bay
Date: July 29, 2006.

Sand cherry fruit, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

 

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Shrubby Cinquefoil (Shrubby Potentilla); botanical name for a group of hardy perennials and shrubs; is the only shrubby species among the cinquefoils.

Flower: Yellow; saucer-shaped; June to September.

Leaves: Smooth-edged; compound with 3 - 7 leaflets, but generally 5, hence the name "cinquefoil"; 

Stem: Woody shrub; the bark is reddish-brown and shreds easily.

Height: up to 1 m.

Habitat: Hot and dry locations or moist partial shade areas, such as alvars, open fields, edges of rivers, and rocky areas.

Interest: "Potentilla" means potent. Historically, the entire plant can be gathered as medicine to reduce inflammation of gums and tonsils, the tannin was used in the tanning of leathers, and the plant was used to stop the flow of blood when applied directly to open cuts; also used as a fever-reducing agent. The leaves have been used to make tea. Potentilla is a popular "home gardener" shrub because it is easy to grow, showy, is low maintenance and is tolerates dry conditions.

Location: Manitoulin
Date: 2005

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potentilla, shrubby cinquefoil, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon.

Skunk or Red Currant

Family: Saxifrage (Saxifragaceae)

Flower: Yellow-green to purplish saucer-shaped; 3-6 mm wide; 5 petals; upright clusters 2-6 cm long; May-June.

Fruit: Red berries; bristly; 6 mm diameter; July-August.

Leaves: Alternate, simple, 4-8 cm wide; resembles a maple leaf; 5-7 lobed, pointed; toothed; leaf stalks 3-5 cm long; shaped like a maple leaf.

Stems: Trailing or ascending stems.

Height: Less than 1 m.

Other: deciduous shrub.  The leaves smell like a skunk odor when crushed.

Habit: Dry to moist soils, deciduous and conifer swamps, rocky slopes and clearings; common across boreal forest.

Location: Burwash
Date: May 13, 2007

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Skunk current flowers, Copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, Ontariowildflower.com

Skunk current plant, Copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, Ontariowildflower.com

Skunk current plant and flowers trailing across a rock..

Location: Burwash
Date: May 13, 2007

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Smooth Blackberry; upright to spreading perennial shrub, arching to the ground; also known as Canada Blackberry.

Flower: White; flat clusters; 1-2 cm wide; in clusters; May-June.

Leaves: Alternate; deciduous, compound; each leaf with 3 to 5 leaflets; 5 leaflets on first year growth; terminal leaves with pointed tip; toothed margins.

Stems: Upright to spreading, arching to the ground; spines.

Height: Spreading along the ground to 1 m.

Fruit: Black; 8 - 12 mm; rounded to thimble shape; July - September.

Habit: Disturbed areas, margins to woodlands, fields, roadsides and fields.

Location: Elbow Lake
Date: July 13, 2002

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Black raspberry, Elbow Lake, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Black raspberry fruit, Elbow Lake, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Smooth blackberry fruit.

Location: Elbow Lake
Date: August 10, 2002

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Smooth gooseberry

Flower: Greenish-yellow; bell-shaped; 7 mm long; 5 petals; loose clusters of 2-3 flowers from leaf axils; May-June. See following photo.

Leaves: Alternate, simple, 2-6 cm long; 3-5 lobes with pointed tips.

Fruit: Smooth, round, bluish-black berries, 8-12 mm diameter; July-August.

Stem: scattered prickles and spines where leafstalks join branches.

Height: up to 90 cm.

Habit: Open woods, prairies, moist beaver meadows, moist hillsides, along the banks of streams, in thickets at the edge of meadows, and open or wooded mountain ridges.

Interest: Gooseberries contain vitamins A and D, and are high in vitamin C, as well as potassium, calcium, phosphorus, niacin, and dietary fiber. Gooseberries are rich in pectin and are ideal for jams and jellies. Gooseberries are reported to contain ellagitannin, which is converted to ellagic acid when consumed, a natural cancer-fighting substance.

Location: Burwash
Date: June 11, 2003.

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Gooseberry bush, copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Smooth Gooseberry flower, copyright 2004 Andy Fyon.

Smooth gooseberry flower.

Location: Burwash beaver meadow
Date: May 23, 2004.

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sumac

Staghorn Sumac

Flower: Small green flowers in terminal clusters; 20 cm long; pyramidal; June-July.

Leaves: Compound with opposite, lance-like, toothed leaflets 5 - 10 cm long.

Bark: Branches covered with velvety hairs.

Height: up to 9 m tall.

Fruit: Berry-like, reddish-brown, covered with bright red hairs.

Other: The soft hairs resemble velvet on a deer's antlers. This accounts for the name "Staghorn" sumac.

Language of Flowers: Sumac means "splendor" or " splendid misery". Source

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Staghorn sumac fruit, copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Location: Burwash
Date: Fall 2005

Staghorn sumac fruit, copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Staghorn sumac fruit cluster.

Location: Burwash
Date: March 25, 2007

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Steeplebush; Erect shrub.

Also known as Hardhack.

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)

Flower: Steeple-shaped, branched clusters of pink flowers; flowers less 6 mm wide; 5 sepals, 5 petals, numerous stamens; July-September. See following photo.

Leaves: Oblong, 2-5 cm long, toothed, woolly on underside.

Stem: Woody old growth.

Height: 60-120 cm.

Habitat: Moist meadows, old fields, pastures, sides of rivers and lakes.

Location: Makynen Road, Sudbury
Date: August 5, 2002

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Steeplebush

Steeplebush flower head.

Steeplebush flower cluster.

Location: Burwash
Date: July 14, 2001.

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Sweet gale; Also known as Bayberry, Bog Myrtle, English Bog Myrtle, Dutch Myrtle; Native perennial shrub.

Family: Myriaceae (Bayberries)

Flower: White; tiny; in clusters on bare wood of the previous year's growth; May.

Leaves: Alternate; resembles a willow; oblanceolate, tapering at base; 2-6 cm long; toothed and broadest at the apex; upper side of leaf is dark glossy green or blue-green colour and the underside is paler and slightly downy; leaves are toothed only at the rounded end.

Stem: Reddish brown colour with prominent lighter lenticels; becomes grayish-brown with age.

Height: Up to 1.5 m high.

Habitat: Bogs, marshes, fens and wet acid soils; plants are occasionally found in calcareous fens.

Interest: A deciduous shrub.  The stems and leaves are fragrant when bruised. The plant is an abortifacient; therefore, it should not be eaten by pregnant women. The flowers are either male or female, but only one sex occurs on any one plant.  Both male and female plants must be close to each other to produce seed (dioecious).  The flowers are pollinated by the wind. The plant not is self-fertile. It can fix Nitrogen. It is noted for attracting wildlife.  Historically, gale was used as an insect repellant (http://www.stopbite.com/) and to flavour beer (http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Myri_gal.html). Gale has been used as a substitute for Bay leaves - the gale leaves are used whole and steeped in soups and sauces and removed before serving.

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Sweet gale leaves, Copyright 2006 Andy Fyon.

Location: Fairbanks Provincial Park
Date: October 8, 2006

Female sweet gale flower, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon.

Female sweet gale flower in early spring.

Location: Secord Road
Date: April 29, 2005

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Wild raisin shrub

Wild raisin: photo of early spring leaves with flower bud. Also known as Witherod, Appalachian tea, False paraguay tea.

Flower: Creamy-white flowers; umbrella-shaped cluster at ends of branches; individual flowers have 5 petals; unpleasant scent; middle to end of June.

Leaves: Opposite; edges vary from smooth to toothed; up to 10 cm long; narrow with pointed tips; turn pink or crimson in autumn.

Fruit: Clusters of small oval berries; pink, then turning blue-black; late August and September.

Height: Up to 4 m tall. See following photo.

Twig: The presence of a cinnamon-brown terminal bud at the tip of the twig is distinctive, especially in the winter.

Similar plant: Wild raisin can be confused with Nannyberry (Viburnum lentago). The wild raisin leaves are has smooth- to wavy-edged or irregularly blunt-toothed leaves, its stalked flower clusters and its cinnamon-coloured or golden to yellowish buds. The leaves of Nannyberry are sharp-pointed and edged with fine, sharp, incurved teeth. The flower clusters are stalkless. The variety Viburnum lentago is most common in northwestern Ontario and in southern Ontario.

Location: Burwash
Date: May 19, 2001

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Wild raisin shrub.

Wild raisin shrub.

Location: Makynen Road
Date: July 1, 2002

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Wild raisin flower.

Wild raisin flowers.

Location: Makynen Road
Date: July 1, 2002

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Wild raisin fruit.

Location: Burwash
Date: September 20, 2009

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Wild raisin fruit, copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

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For more information email: andy@ontariowildflower.com
Page last updated on: August 15, 2010
Website created by Andy Fyon
URL: http://www.ontariowildflower.com/shrub.htm
© 1999-2010 Andy Fyon

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