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Andy's Northern Ontario Wildflowers
Native Meadow Wildflowers

 

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Habitat:

Illustrated on this page are some native northern Ontario wildflowers that occur in meadows.

Meadows are characterized by a mix of grasses and wildflowers. The soil in this area consists of sandy loam - sand, clay, and organic material.

The meadows receive lots of sun and are open sites with good air circulation. They are hot and become dry when rain is infrequent.

Wildflowers adapt by having deep tap roots, both to compete with the grasses and to access water during periods of drought. The matting, tight-knit roots of the grasses, in combination with the deep roots of the wildflowers, combined to help keep weedy plants to a minimum.

Link here for a discussion of alien wildflowers that prefer a meadow habitat: alien Ontario meadow wildflowers.

Click here for more habitat information:

 

Native Meadow Wildflower List:

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American vetch, Thunder Bay, copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

American vetch; also known as American Purple Vetch, Mat Vetch; native perennial.

Interest: The flowers have both male and female organs and are pollinated by Insects, which makes the plant self-fertile. Like other members of the pea family, American Vetch fixes Nitrogen from the air into the soil, thus improving poor soils. In folklore, the leaves have been used by women as a love medicine. This climbing plant attaches itself to other plants using tendrils.

Flower: Lavender to purple flowers; loose clusters; long; tube-like with long, one-sided sides 1-2 cm long; May - July.

Leaves: Compound with 8-12 pairs of narrow leaflets, each up to 2 cm long; a pair of tendrils occurs at the end of each leafstalk.

Stems: Trailing or climbing.

Height: up to 140 cm.

Habitats:Open places in woods along road sides and fences, and dry meadows.

Language of Flowers: For some, American Vetch means "I give myself permission to be here".

Location: top of Crystal Lake Mountain, Thunder Bay
Date: June 10, 2002

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Aster, Small white

Flower: White, about 8 mm wide, 15-30 ray flowers; green-tipped bracts beneath heads; mostly clustered along one side of branches; August-October.

Leaves: Stem leaves- 7-12 cm long, linear to lanceolate, untoothed; branch leaves- smaller.

Stem: Smooth, slender, purple-tinged; branched.

Height: 60-150 cm.

Other: There are many varieties of small flowered aster. See following photo.

Location: Burwash
Date: September 4, 1999.

 

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small white aster

Small white aster leaf axil and purple stem.

Small white aster leaf axils and purple stems are distinctive.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 26, 2001.

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arrow leaved aster

Ciliolate Aster; also known as Lindley's aster or Fringed Blue Aster.

Flower: Rays are pink to pinkish-purple or white; floral bracts very narrow, smooth; usually less than 50 flower heads in a cluster; 12 - 25 blue ray flowers; late summer.

Leaves: Alternate; commonly as basal leaves on nonflowering plants;  basal and lower stem leaves egg-shaped to heart-shaped that taper to a sharp-pointed tip, rounded or heart-shaped at the base, sharply toothed.

Stem: Smooth, unbranched, sparingly leafy; short woody base.

Height: Up to 1 m.

Habitat: Forest habitats on mineral and organic soils, along forest margins, in open woodlands, along roadsides, in old fields and clearings.

Location: Burwash
Date: September 4, 2000.

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Calico Aster; also known as Starved aster, White woodland aster, and One-sided aster.

Flower: White or pale purple flowers; 8-15 short rays surrounding a yellow or, often, a purplish disk; flowers are produced on one side only of the divergent branches; flowers are 0.6 - 1.3 cm in diameter; flowers are pale yellowish-white when they open and gradually change to purplish-red; flower stems start from leaf axils; August - October.

Leaves: Coarsely toothed leaves; 5-15 cm long, lanceolate to elliptical in shape; do not noticeably clasp the stem.

Stem: Ascending; covered with small hairs.

Height: up to 90 cm.

Habitat: Commonly found in open woods, borders and thickets and in fields.

Interest: At any time, one plant, or even a single flower, may have both colours present, creating a calico effect.

Location: Burwash
Date: September 7, 2002.

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Calico aster, Burwash, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Calico aster, Burwash, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Calico aster flower. Note that the flowers heads are on one side of the stem (secund).

Location: Burwash
Date: September 7, 2002.

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Flat-topped white aster; native perennial; also called Flat-top Aster, Parasol Aster, Tall Flat-topped White Aster.

Family: Aster (Asteraceae) 

Flower: White ray flowers surrounding yellow disk flowers; flat-topped cluster; few rayed (2-15) flowers; each flower 1-2 cm wide; yellow disk turns purplish or gray with age; the grayish flower heads persist late into fall; August - September.

Stem: Rigid, upright carrying the flower cluster.

Leaves: Lanced-shaped, toothless, rough-margined; up to 15 cm long.

Height: 0.5 - 2 m.

Habitat: Moist thickets, meadows, swamp edges, and roadsides.

Interest: Prefers moist areas; one of the earliest asters to bloom. The flower cluster is usually flat-topped, but occasionally the plant has a dome-shaped flower cluster.

Location: Secord quarry road
Date: August 8, 2003.

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flat-topped white aster, copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Flat-topped white aster, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Flat-topped white aster plant.

Location: Secord quarry road
Date: August 8, 2003.

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Large-leaved aster plant, copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Large-leaved aster; also known as Bigleaf Aster, Lumberjack Toilet Paper.

Family: Asteraceae.

Flower: Pale blue to purple with yellow disc at centre; disk turns reddish brown with age; daisy-like; 9-20 ray flowers that are up to 15 mm long; July - August.

Stem: Flowering stems may zig-zag, reddish colour; blooming stems are not common and hence, the mass of leaves looks like a dense ground cover.

Leaves: Basal leaves are heart-shaped, pointed tip, 1-4 in total, up to 20 cm long and 15 cm wide; toothed; stem leaves are smaller, stalkless, narrower, oblong.

Height: Up to 1 m.

Habitat: Open forest edges, dry to moist, mixed forests, forest edges, roadsides, fields, common in the Burwash area along roads and in areas that have been logged.

Distinctive: Purplish stem, heart-shaped basal leaves.

Interest: Large-leaved Aster spreads by rhizomes and forms a widespread ground cover and can create large dense colonies.

Language of Flowers: Means "afterthought or love of variety". Source

Location: Burwash
Date: September 5, 2002.

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Large-leaved aster flower head, Copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Large-leaved aster flower.

Location: Killarney Provincial Park
Date: August 26, 2007

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Large-leaved aster basal leaves, Copyright 2004 Andy Fyon.

Large-leaved aster basal leaves. Note the heart-shape of these basal leaves.

Location: Burwash
Date: September 12, 2004.

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Purple-stemmed aster flower, copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Location: McVittie Road
Date: August 26, 2007.

Purple-stemmed aster, also known as Glossy-leaves aster, swamp aster, Cocash, and Meadow Scabish Squaw-weed.

Native perennial.

Family:Composite or Daisy (Compositae)

Flower: Deep blue-violet with a yellow centre; mostly single at ends of branchlets; central "disc" flowers are usually a bright yellow; 15-25 ray flowers; flower head 2-3 cm across; August - September.

Stem: Hairy, erect, somewhat brittle, widely branching; generally has a reddish or purple colour with bristly hairs; is variable and stem may be green-coloured and smooth.

Leaves: Toothless to weakly toothed; alternate; clasp the stem; lance shaped; short; generally hairy on the underside of leaf.

Height: up to 1 m.

Habitat: Moist edges of mixed forests and open areas, edges of streams and ditches.

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Purple-stemmed aster, copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Purple-stemmed aster plant that stands about 1 m tall.  This plant occurs on the edge of an open deciduous forest, adjacent to a road.

Location: McVittie Road
Date: August 26, 2007.

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Late purple aster leaves.

Leaves of purple-stemmed aster.  Note the clasping nature of the leaf.

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New England aster

Flower: Bright lavender-coloured flower heads; at branch tips; 2-5 cm wide; 35-45 ray flowers; yellowish disk flowers; August-October.

Leaves: Lanceolate, toothless, clasping stem. 

Stem: Flower stalk has sticky hairs.

Height: 90-210 cm.

Location: Sudbury, Fyon garden
Date: September 20, 2009

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New England aster, copyright Andy Fyon 2009, www.ontariowildflower.com

New England aster, copyright Andy Fyon 2009, www.ontariowildflower.com

New England aster flower head with lavender ray flowers and yellowish disk flowers.

Location: Sudbury, Fyon garden
Date: September 19, 2009

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Pringle's Aster; also known as Frost aster, Heath aster, Old field aster, Awl aster, Hairy aster.

Flower: White; crowded flower heads; narrow bracts with a green, diamond-shaped tip; some flowers form white rays while others form a central yellow disk; ray flowers 20-35, 3-8 mm long; disk flowers tubular; 1-2 cm across; 5 stamens, no sepals; August - September.

Leaves: Terminal leaflets are wedge-like shape; large leaflets often interspersed with small leaves; compound; upper leaves are lanceolate.

Stem: Upright, unbranched or sparingly branched, slender, smooth or hairy in lines, up to 2 feet tall.

Height: up to 1 m.

Habitat: Dry sand to open meadows and roadsides.

Location: Burwash
Date: September 7, 2002.

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Pringle's Aster, Burwash, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Pringle's aster plant, Burwash, Copyright 2001 Andy Fyon.

Pringle's aster foliage.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 26, 2001

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Pringle's aster plant, Burwash, Copyright 2001 Andy Fyon.

Pringle's aster plant.

Location: Burwash
Date: August 26, 2001

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Yellow Avens; perennial; also known as Large-leaf aven, Largeleaf Aven, Large-leaved Aven, Big Leaf Aven.

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)

Flower: Yellow; 5 petals; 5 sepals; 1-2 cm across; numerous stamens and pistils in a dense central cluster; when mature, each flower head turns into a nearly spherical brown to dark brown bur about 2 cm in diameter; the seed in the bur has a sharply hooked tip which clings to fur, clothes and skin; burs present into winter; June-August.

Leaves: Terminal leaflets are wedge-like shape; large leaflets often interspersed with small leaves along each side of the central stalk; compound; rosette leaves long-stalked; leaflets coarsely toothed, hairy and green on both surfaces; stem leaves alternate and upper stem leaves are stalkless; stem leaves are divided into 3-5 leaflets.

Stem: Very bristly-hairy; erect; branched.

Height: up to 0.5 m.

Habitat: Grows in moist meadows, open woods, pastures, waste areas and roadsides.

Interest: The Large-leaf Aven flower has styles that are S-shaped near the tip. The S-shape is retained in the fruits (achenes). This hook-shape helps the achenes stick to fur and fabric and therefore helps the plant disperse its seeds widely.

Location: Fairbanks Provincial Park
Date: October 9, 2006

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Yellow large-leaf aven, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon.

 

Yellow avens, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Yellow avens flower heads droop as the mature. Note also that the sepals age.

Location: Burwash
Date: June 30, 2003

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blackeyed susan, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

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Black-eyed Susan, native to North America; also called Brown-eyed Susan, Brown Betty, Ox-eye daisy, poor-land daisy, poor-man's daisy, yellow daisy, and yellow ox-eye daisy; biennial.

Flower: Yellow, daisy-like; single blossom; numerous (10-20) long, yellow daisy-like ray flowers; chocolate-coloured, disk flowers in centre; 5-7.5 cm wide; June-October.

Leaves: Very bristly-hairy; 5-18 cm long; lanceolate to ovate.

Stem: Very bristly-hairy.

Height: up to 1 m.

Habitat: Dry fields, road sides.

Interest: A plant with a black eye? The centre of the Black-eyed Susan flower is not actually black. It is brown and dark purple. The yellow daisy-like flower is easy to recognize with its dark brown centre disk. It is drought tolerant and attracts butterflies and bees. Rudbeckia was named after Rudbeck who was a professor of botany at Upsala in Sweden. The Latin name hirta refers to the hairiness of the whole plant. Black-eyed Susan makes a very nice cut flower with vase-life of up to 10 days.

Language of Flowers: Rudbeckia means "justice". Source

Location: Burwash
Date: July 12, 2002

daisy fleabane

Daisy fleabane

Flower: White or pink ray flowers surrounding yellow disk flowers; length of rays appears short compared to diameter of flower; 40-70 rays; ~1 cm wide; June - October.

Leaves: Strongly toothed; hairy; up to 12 cm long, lanceolate shape. See next photo.

Stem: Hairy, erect

Height: 30 - 150 cm.

Other: Looks like an aster, but starts blooming in the spring.

Folklore: Name originated from belief that dried flowers could drive fleas from a home. Distinguished from common fleabane by toothed leaves.

Location: Burwash
Date: July 2, 2001

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Toothed leaves of daisy fleabane.

Location: Burwash
Date: July 2, 2001

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Daisy fleabane leaves

Daisy fleabane plant, Burwash, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Daisy fleabane plant.

Location: Burwash
Date: July 13, 2002

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Common fleabane flower, Manitoulin Island, copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Common fleabane or Philadelphia fleabane

Flower: White or pink ray flowers surrounding yellow disk flowers; up to 150 rays; 1 - 2.5 cm wide; May - August.

Leaves: Not toothed; hairy; clasp stem; up to 15 cm long; oblong shape.

Stem: Erect

Height: 15 - 90 cm.

Habitat: Roadsides, fields, vacant lots, parking lots.

General Interest: Fleabane's common name comes from a belief that dried flowers could be used against flea infestations, though it is also suggested that the name refers to its seeds being as small as fleas. The flower head  looks like an aster, but Common Fleabane starts blooming in the spring. Common fleabane is distinguished from the Daisy Fleabane by the non-toothed leaves.

Location: Burwash
Date: July 2, 2001

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Leaves of common fleabane. Note how the leaf clasps the stem. This feature distinguished Common Fleabane from Daisy Fleabane.

Location: Manitoulin Island, Misery Bay
Date: June 29, 2002.

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Common fleabane leaves.

Cylindric blazing star (Liatris)

Flower: Rose-purple, lavender; stalked, few flower heads along the stem; 20-50 florets per head; July - September.

Leaves: Bracts in a tight cylinder, flat, sharp-pointed; elongate, narrow, grasslike.

Stem: Stiffly stalked, smooth.

Height: 20-50 cm.

Habitat: Prefers dry, limestone-derived or limy soils.

Location: Great La Cloche Island
Date: August 2, 2004.

See also Cylindrical Blazing Star - Manitoulin Island - for more information.

 

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cylindric blazing star, liatris, copyright 2004 Andy Fyon.

Bottle gentian or closed gentian, copyright 2004 Andy Fyon.

Bottle gentian; native perennial; also known as Closed Gentian.

Family: Gentian (Gentianceae)

Flower: Dark blue to purple; bottle-like, cylindrical flower; nearly closed at the tip; 2-4 cm long; few to many clusters at the top of the stem or in axils of upper leaves; August - October.

Leaves: Ovate or lanceolate; 10 cm long and 0.6 - 3 cm wide; whorl below flower cluster, opposite below flower cluster.

Height: 15-60 cm.

Habitat: Prefers moist areas in meadows, low areas, ditches.

Interest: The flowers of this gentian never fully open, giving them their characteristic bottle-like appearance. Bumblebees are one of the few insects able to force their way into the closed petals to collect nectar and pollinate the flowers. Bottle gentian flowers later in the fall, close to the time of the first frost.

Date: August 21, 2004.

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Bottle gentian or Closed gentian flower.

Date: August 21, 2004

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Closed gentian or Bottle gentian flower, copyright 2004 Andy Fyon.

Early buttercup (Ranunculus fascicularis), copyright 2006 Andy Fyon.

Early buttercup; native perennial; also known as Thick-root Buttercup

Family: Buttercup (Ranunculaceae)

Flower: Yellow; single flower; on end of stalks that are up to 20 cm long; erect; 5 petals; about 1 cm across; shiny above and pale below; many stamens; 5 spreading sepals; 2 cm across; May-June.

Leaves: Leaves of the basal rosette have a long stalk or petiole (up to 15 cm long); mostly basal and deeply lobed; leaf segments rounded.

Stem: Leaves and flowering stalks originate from basal cluster.

Height: Up to 25 cm.

Habitat: Prefers calcareous soils of prairies, pastures, dry, open woods, calcareous rock outcrops, alvars, and calcareous savanna.

Interest: Ranunculus: from Latin rana, "little frog," because many species tend to grow in moist places and fascicularis meaning "of bundles".

Location: Manitoulin - Burnt Island
Date: May 20, 2006.

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Early buttercup leaf, Copyright 2006 Andy Fyon

Early buttercup leaf. Note the lobed and rounded segments.

Location: Manitoulin - Burnt Island
Date: May 20, 2006.

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Narrow-leaved vervain

Also known: Herb of grace, Holy herb, Enchanter's plant

Flower: White, lavender or purple that form on a stalk; bloom from bottom to top of stalk; 5 petals; May to September.

Leaves: Narrow, opposite, lance-shaped that taper to a stalkless base; deeply lobed; sparsely leaved.

Stem: Greenish.

Height: 0.3 - 0.5 m.

Habitat: meadows, alvars

Other: Vervain has a long association with mysticism and magic. In Medieval times, people worn necklaces of vervain to protect them from headaches and snake bites.

Location: Meldrum Bay, Mississagi lighthouse, Manitoulin Island
Date: July 25, 2006.

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Narrow-leaved vervain, copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

tall wormwood

Wormwood; also known as Artemether, artemisinin, artemotil, artesunate, quinghao, sweet annie, sweet wormwood, and wormweed.

Family: Asteraceae (Aster)

Flower: Tiny, nodding, yellow-green flower heads without rays.

Leaves: Stringy, forked leaves, silvery-green.

Stem: Dark green to reddish.

Height: 0.3 - 1.2 m.

Flowers: July to October.

Habitat: Open areas, sand dunes and alvar.

Interest: Wormwood has an interesting history. It is reported that many types of insects are repelled or killed by wormwood.  Despite being very poisonous, wormwood was reportedly used to cure intestinal worms in people and animals. It was also used to make some alcoholic drinks. Modern science suggests that consumption of wormwood could have serious physical effects. (Reference: http://fay.iniminimo.com/herbs.html#wormwood).

Location: Misery Bay, Manitoulin Island
Date: June 6, 2009.

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 Wormwood (Artemisia) may may hold a potential treatment for cancer.  Recent research (journal Life Sciences ) is testing some of the ancient Chinese folk medicine.  A wormwood derivative appears to be effective at killing a type of breast cancer cell.  The active compound is called "artemisinin".  It was extracted from the wormwood plant (Artemesia annua L.) long ago by the Chinese, who used it to combat malaria.  Artemisinin has been resurrected and is widely used in Asia and Africa to fight malaria.  Artemisinin reacts with iron in the cancer cells and the malaria parasite to create "free radicals" that kill the cancer and malaria parasite.

Click here for more information

Artemisinin and Malaria research

Tall wormwood, copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Common strawberry; also known as wild strawberry.

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)

Flower: White with yellow centres; round petals; two to three flowers in a terminal cluster on a single stalk; flowers lower than leaves; April - June.

Leaves: Hairy; in three leaflets; coarsely-toothed leaves on slender stalk that is separate from flower stalk.

Fruit: Red with tiny seeds on surface; similar to domestic strawberry.

Stem: Separate flower and leaf stems; hairy.

Height: 5 - 15 cm.

Habitat: Open dry waste areas, such as roadsides, old fields, edges of woodlands, opening in woods.

Interest: Bears and other small animals love to eat the red fruits. The wild strawberry has lots of taste, unlike the cultivated strawberry.

Language of Flowers: Strawberry means "perfect excellence". Source

Location: Burwash
Date: June 2, 2002.

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Wild strawberry, Burwash Ontario, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Strawberry fruit.

Common strawberry fruit.

Location: Burwash
Date: July 7, 2002.

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Wild common strawberry plant, Burwash Ontario, copyright 2004 Andy Fyon

Common strawberry plant.

Location: Burwash
Date: May 28, 2004

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Common strawberry carpet along the side of an old logging road.

Location: Burwash
Date: June 2, 2002.

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Common strawberry carpet, Burwash Ontario, copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Barren strawberry, Burwash Ontario, copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Barren Strawberry; native to North America.

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)

Flower: Yellow; 5 petals; 5 sepals; many stamens; 5-10 mm long, 3-6 mm wide; several in loose cluster; flowering stems are leafless; April - May.

Leaves: Compound; 3 leaflets on long stalks; wedge-shaped to oval, 3-5 cm long; margins broadly toothed.

Stem: The plant produces runners as a means to create new plants.

Height: 7-20 cm.

Habitat: Found in meadows, waste areas, deciduous forest; does not produce a strawberry. See following photo.

Interest: The plant does not produce any fruit and has no runners; hence, the name barren-ground strawberry, but you may find it growing close to the fruit-bearing common wild strawberry. The Barren Strawberry is an excellent ground cover for those difficult areas around your home. It is a plant that tolerates drought, so it is a valuable addition to a xeriscape garden. Barren Strawberry spreads by runners, just like the wild strawberry.

Location: Burwash
Date: June 2, 2002

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Barren Strawberry, Burwash Ontario, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Barren Strawberry flowers in detail.

Location: Burwash
Date: May 25, 2002

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Common strawberry and barren-ground strawberry.

Barren strawberry compared to common strawberry.  Plants in a waste area on roadside. The colour of the flowers and leaves distinguish the two at the flowering stage.

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Prairie smoke, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon

Prairie smoke; perennial; also known as Old Man's Whiskers,  Three Flowered Avens, Purple (or Red) Avens, Long-plumed Avens.

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)

Flower: Reddish-brown or pinkish; at top of stalk; 2 cm long; 5 small, pale orange petals almost completely hidden by maroon sepals; flowers droop at end of stem; May - June.

Leaves: Divided into wedge-shaped to oblong, toothed or lobed leaflets; 10-25 cm long.

Height: 15-40 cm.

Habitat: Dry open prairies; prefers full sun; common on Alvars.

Other: seed look like dusters (see following photos).

Interest: Prairie Smoke is an un common prairie plant. In Ontario, it is most commonly found on alvars. The feather-fruits (see below) are called achenes. Though the flowers nod, the stems turn upright when the seed is ready to allow the wind to carry the seed away.

Location: Manitoulin Island
Date: May 20, 2006

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prairie smoke seed, copyright 2005 Andy Fyon.

Prairie smoke in seed.

Location: Manitoulin Island
Date: June 2005.

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Prairie smoke flower, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon.

Prairie smoke flower.

Location: Manitoulin Island
Date: May 22, 2005.

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Fragrant bedstraw, also known as Sweet-scented bedstraw.

Flower: Greenish-white, small; 4 petals; June-August.

Leaves: Whorls of 6, narrowly oblong; 2-9 cm long; single veined; coarse hairs on underside. See following 2 photos.

Stem: Square, hairless, weak, reclining

Height: 20-80 cm.

Habitat: Meadows, fields, grass-lands.

Interest: People used to gather these plants, dry them, and stuff their mattresses with them. When dried, the leaves smell a bit like vanilla.

Location: Burwash
Date: September 11, 2004

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Fragrant bedstraw plant , copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Fragrant bedstraw leaves, copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Fragrant bedstraw leaves.  Note the whorls of 6 leaves along the stem. This feature helps to distinguish the fragrant bedstraw from other bedstraw varieties.

Location: Burwash
Date: July 14, 2002.

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Fragrant bedstraw flower, Copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Fragrant bedstraw flower close-up.

Location: Burwash
Date: September 16, 2006.

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Canada anemone, Manitoulin Island, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Canada anemone; also known as Round-leaf thimbleweed, Canada anemone, Windflower; perennial.

The white "petals" of the plant are actually it's sepals. According to Greek mythology, anemones were the tears Venus wept when Mars got jealous and sent a wild boar to kill her lover, Adonis.

Flower: White, 5 unequal petal-like sepals, 1-2.5 cm long on solitary stalk from centre of leaves; numerous stamens in the center of the flower; June-July.

Leaves: Alternate, deeply cut into 3-5 lobes; basal leaves are long-stalked, 5-15 cm wide; a single whorl of 3- to 5-parted leaves located on the stem.

Stem: Upright, 0.4m, stem bearing a single whorl of 3- to 5-parted leaves.

Height: 20-70 cm.

Habitat: Prefers moist open areas, such as ditches, edges of creeks, and moist meadows. Tolerates part shade.

Other: Plants contain a toxic compound that may irritate the skin.

Location: Manitoulin Island
Date: June 29, 2002.

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Clump of Canada anemone in a damp meadow area, beside a creek.

Location: Manitoulin Island
Date: June 29, 2002.

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Canada anemone clump, Manitoulin Island, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Wild bergamot plant, copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Wild bergamot

Flower: Lavender-coloured tubular flowers at top of stem; 2.5 cm long; hairy 2-lobed upper lip on corolla; broader 3-lobed lower lip; 2 stamens; June-September. See following photo.

Leaves: Gray-green, opposite, lanceolate, coarsely toothed, 6 cm long.

Stem: Square stem.

Height: 60-120 cm.

Other: Part of mint family, hence the square stem; aromatic leaves used to make a medicinal tea. The scent of Wild Bergamot resembles that of oil of bergamot, derived from a small Mediterranean tree named Citrus aurantium bergamia. Oil from this citrus tree, not the wildflower, is used to add flavour to Earl Grey tea. Also known as Beebalm, Horsemint, Lemon-mint, Purple-Bergamot.

Location: Sudbury, Fyon garden

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Wild bergamot flower.

Location: Carden alvar
Date: August 10, 2009

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Wild bergamot flower.

Lupin, copyright 2009 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Location: Burwash
Date: June 23, 2002

Lupin

Flower: Blue, pea-like, terminal cluster on an upright, erect stem; 1.5 cm long; April - July.

Leaves: 7 - 11 lanceolate leaflets up to 5 cm long; radiate from central point.

Stem: Erect.

Height: up to 1 m.

Language of Flowers: Means "dejection" or "imagination". Source

Other: Lupins are common where houses once stood. The lupins are likely a domestic variety that has spread into the waste or field areas.

Lore: The name lupinus is derived from the Latin lupus, meaning wolf, because these plants were thought to exhaust the nutrients from the soil. However, like other members of the pea family, lupins actually fix nitrogen from the air and add nitrogen to the soil.

CAUTION: LUPIN SEEDS ARE POISONOUS!

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Starry false solomon's seal; also known as Starry Solomon's Seal, False Solomon's Seal, Bog False Solomon's Seal, Star-Flowered Solomon's Seal, Starry Solomon Plume, Starry Smilac, Spikenard; perennial.

Flower: White; 5 to 10 in a terminal cluster or raceme; star-shaped; 6 mm wide; May - July.

Leaves: Clasping leaves; alternate, 10 cm long.

Stem: Erect; flowers at tip.

Height: 20 - 30 cm.

Fruit: Berries with blackish-red stripes, eventually become completely black.

Habitat: Cool, moist environments, but also occurs on rocky, well-drained hills and open forests on flood plains adjacent to streams.

Interest: This plant will generally survive a forest fire because the rhizomes are protected in mineral soil.

Location: Manitoulin Island
Date: May 23, 2005.

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Starry false solomon's seal, copyright 2010 Andy Fyon, www.Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Starry false solomon's seal, star-flowered solomon's seal, Copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Starry False Solomon's seal flower.

Location: Manitoulin Island, Little Current
Date: May 26, 2007

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Starry False Solomon's seal fruit.

Location: Manitoulin Island, Carter's Bay
Date: July 29, 2006

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Starry false solomon's seal fruit, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon, www.ontariowildflower.com

Agrimony flower, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon

Agrimony; native perennial; also known as church steeples, cockleburr, and stickwort.

Flower: Yellow; small, yellow clusters on stem above the leaves; flower 6 mm wide, 5 petals; July - August.

Leaves: Leaflets are 5-10 cm long; bright green, many veined, coarsely toothed; often with 3 pairs of tiny leaflets present between the larger leaflets.

Stem: Erect; contains flowers; has a spicy order when crushed.

Height: 30 - 180 cm.

Habitat: Meadows, boarders of forests, fields.

Language of Flowers: Agrimony means thankfulness or gratitude. Source

Interest: The species name means "having hooked sepals". There are several varieties of Agrimony. In the Middle Ages, Agrimony was said to have magic powers and if laid under a man's head, Agrimony induced heavy sleep until removed.

Location: Killarney Provincial Park, Granite Ridge trail
Date: July 13, 2003

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Agrimony fruit

Agrimony fruit on flower stem.

Location: Killarney Provincial Park, Granite Ridge trail
Date: July 22, 2001.

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Agrimony leaves, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Agrimony leaves. Note very small leaflets between the larger leaflets.

Location: Thunder Bay, High Falls
Date: July 28, 2002.

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White false indigo, Thunder Bay, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon

White False Indigo; also known as Rattlepod, Prairie false indigo, White wild indigo; perennial herb.

Interest: White False Indigo is a member of the legume family. It fixes nitrogen from the air into the soil and thus improves poor soil. The plant produces large seed pods. It is said that the children of some early settlers and First Nation peoples used the seed pods as rattles. The plant is poisonous if eaten.

Flower: White, pea-shaped, and numerous; up to 2.5 cm long, and held in stiff erect clusters up to 30 cm long; on several stalks; June - July.

Leaves: Oval, with three leaflets; they turn a blue-black with the first frost.

Stems: Smooth.

Height:  Up to 1.5 m.

Habitat: Dry to moist prairie and open woodlands.

Location: top of Crystal Lake Mountain, Thunder Bay
Date: June 10, 2002

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Plant of White False Indigo, early in its summer growth.

Location: top of Crystal Lake Mountain, Thunder Bay
Date: June 10, 2002

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White false indigo plant, Thunder Bay, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Wild columbine flower, Copyright 2006 Andy Fyon.

Wild Columbine; also known as Canada or Canadian columbine, honeysuckle, meetinghouses, rock-bells, and simply, columbine; perennial herb.

Interest: The upward tubes contain nectar that attracts insects, such as hawk moths, and hummingbirds that have long tongues. It is reported that Native Americans rubbed the crushed seeds on the hands of men as a love charm. Columbine is called "the flower for the masses." Once started, Columbine propagates for years and, although perennial, they increase rapidly by self-sown seed.

Flower: Drooping, bell-like red and yellow flower, 2-5 cm long; 5 upward, tube-shaped spurred petals alternating with 5 spreading, coloured sepals; numerous yellow stamens hanging below the petals; May - July.

Leaves: Compound, long-stalked, up to 15 cm wide; divided into many light green 3-lobed leaflets.

Stems: Long stems connected to leaves and flowers.

Height: Up to 60 cm.

Habitat: Wooded or open, rocky or sandy ground, dry slopes, exposed rock ledges and crevices, edges of forests, and peat bogs.

Location: Manitoulin Island, Misery Bay
Date: May 20, 2006

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Wild columbine plant, Copyroght 2006 Andy Fyon

Wild columbine leaves, Thunder Bay, copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Wild Columbine plant and leaves.

Location: Manitoulin Island, Misery Bay
Date: May 20, 2006.

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Pink wild chives, Manitoulin Island, copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Wild Chives; Perennial; Smells like onion; also known as Prairie Onion, Wild Onion, Wild garlic, or Fall Glade Onion.

Family: Lily

Flower: Pale pink to lilac-coloured; darker centre line; tubular-bell-shaped; flowers form a dense terminal cluster; up to about 30 in a round cluster; flowers consist of 6 petals that spread slightly at the tip to form the bell; May-August.

Leaves: Alternate; grass-like and cylindrical; usually 2; hollow, 1-7 mm thick.

Stems: Stem rises from tiny bulbs to produce a typical onion-like stem topped by lavender flowers.

Height: Up to 50 cm.

Habitat: Moist meadows, moist alvars or limestone pavement, and shores or lakes.

Interest: The name Allium is the Latin for garlic.

Location: Manitoulin Island
Date: June 29, 2002

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Mass of Wild Chives growing on limestone pavement depression that is moist.

Location: Manitoulin Island
Date: June 29, 2002

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Pink wild onion patch, Manitoulin Island, copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Purple giant hyssop, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon

Purple Giant Hyssop; perennial.

Family: Mint

Interest: The square stem of the plant is typical of the Mint Family.

Flower: Purple; tubular in shape with an upper and lower lip; in crowded spike; typical are the 4-protruding stamens; bracts are purplish in colour; flowers occur in whorls around the stem; July - September.

Leaves:Generally coarsely toothed, stalked, up to 10 cm long and 5 cm wide; opposite; upper surface is coarsely veined; when crushed, smell like anise.

Stems: Stem is 4-sided; upper stems are branched;

Height: Up to 1.5 m.

Habitat: Margins of meadows or just inside the forest, where soil is moist, rich, but well drained and where the plant receives sunlight. There are suggestions that the seed must be disturbed to germinate; hence, the tendency to occur at edges of meadows or open forest where the soil has been disturbed.

Location: Makynen Road, forest on old homestead
Date: August 5, 2002

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Plant detail of Purple Giant Hyssop.

Location: Makynen Road, forest on old homestead
Date: August 5, 2002

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Purple giant hyssop leaves, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Tower mustard or tower rockcress, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon.

Tower Mustard; also known as Tower Rockcress, Tower cress; perennial.

Family: Mustard (Brassicaceae)

Flower: Pale yellow; 4-petaled and small; erect to reflexed; sepals erect; June-July.

Leaves: Clasping stem; bottom leaves large and rough; stem leaves are clasping and alternate.

Stems: Erect, unbranched; sometimes tinged with violet, and is slightly hairy towards the base; cylindric, leafy.

Height: Up to 1 m.

Habitat: Meadows, fields, open woods

Interest: The seed pods are long (up to 9 cm) and are up-right near the top of the stem resembling bundled twigs.

Location: Paddy Creek
Date: June 11, 2006

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Tower mustard or Tower Rockcress flower detail.

Location: Paddy Creek
Date: June 11, 2006.

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Tower mustard or tower rockcress, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon.

Creeping phlox, Copyright 2007 Andy Fyon, Ontariowildflower.com

Creeping Phlox: also known as Flowering Moss, Moss Phlox, Ground Pink, and Moss Pinks; Native to eastern United States; Perennial.

Family:

Flower: Magenta (pink-purple), fuchsia (red-purple), violet/lavender, and white colour; corolla tube up to 1.3 cm long; 5 blunt-shaped petals that are notched at the tip; 1 cm long and 6 mm wide; 5 stamens; flowers mid-spring.

Stem: May be red in colour, up to 30 cm long; grows from fibrous roots.

Leaves: Opposite or whorled; about 1.5 cm long and 2 mm wide; evergreen; dense mats of foliage consisting of tiny needle-like leaves on its stems.

Height: Less than 15 cm.

Habitat: Open areas, poor soil, commonly in former gardens.

General Interest: Commonly used as a rock garden plant. At Burwash, Creeping Phlox is a common "escapee" from domestic gardens in the old townsites.

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URL: http://www.ontariowildflower.com/wildflower_meadow.htm
© 1999-2010 Andy Fyon
Sudbury, Ontario

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Andy Fyon

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